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Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 1 2015

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Editor's Note

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 553 - 554
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editor's Introduction to the Special Section on the International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2013

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 555 - 556
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Real-Time 3D Tracking and Reconstruction on Mobile Phones

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 557 - 570
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    We present a novel framework for jointly tracking a camera in 3D and reconstructing the 3D model of an observed object. Due to the region based approach, our formulation can handle untextured objects, partial occlusions, motion blur, dynamic backgrounds and imperfect lighting. Our formulation also allows for a very efficient implementation which achieves real-time performance on a mobile phone, by running the pose estimation and the shape optimisation in parallel. We use a level set based pose estimation but completely avoid the, typically required, explicit computation of a global distance. This leads to tracking rates of more than 100 Hz on a desktop PC and 30 Hz on a mobile phone. Further, we incorporate additional orientation information from the phone’s inertial sensor which helps us resolve the tracking ambiguities inherent to region based formulations. The reconstruction step first probabilistically integrates 2D image statistics from selected keyframes into a 3D volume, and then imposes coherency and compactness using a total variational regularisation term. The global optimum of the overall energy function is found using a continuous max-flow algorithm and we show that, similar to tracking, the integration of per voxel posteriors instead of likelihoods improves the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time RGB-D Camera Relocalization via Randomized Ferns for Keyframe Encoding

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 571 - 583
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    Recovery from tracking failure is essential in any simultaneous localization and tracking system. In this context, we explore an efficient keyframe-based relocalization method based on frame encoding using randomized ferns. The method enables automatic discovery of keyframes through online harvesting in tracking mode, and fast retrieval of pose candidates in the case when tracking is lost. Frame encoding is achieved by applying simple binary feature tests which are stored in the nodes of an ensemble of randomized ferns. The concatenation of small block codes generated by each fern yields a global compact representation of camera frames. Based on those representations we define the frame dissimilarity as the block-wise hamming distance (BlockHD). Dissimilarities between an incoming query frame and a large set of keyframes can be efficiently evaluated by simply traversing the nodes of the ferns and counting image co-occurrences in corresponding code tables. In tracking mode, those dissimilarities decide whether a frame/pose pair is considered as a novel keyframe. For tracking recovery, poses of the most similar keyframes are retrieved and used for reinitialization of the tracking algorithm. The integration of our relocalization method into a hand-held KinectFusion system allows seamless continuation of mapping even when tracking is frequently lost. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Impact of Soft Tissue Heterogeneity on Augmented Reality for Liver Surgery

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 584 - 597
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    This paper presents a method for real-time augmented reality of internal liver structures during minimally invasive hepatic surgery. Vessels and tumors computed from pre-operative CT scans can be overlaid onto the laparoscopic view for surgery guidance. Compared to current methods, our method is able to locate the in-depth positions of the tumors based on partial three-dimensional liver tissue motion using a real-time biomechanical model. This model permits to properly handle the motion of internal structures even in the case of anisotropic or heterogeneous tissues, as it is the case for the liver and many anatomical structures. Experimentations conducted on phantom liver permits to measure the accuracy of the augmentation while real-time augmentation on in vivo human liver during real surgery shows the benefits of such an approach for minimally invasive surgery. View full abstract»

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  • Using Augmented Reality to Elicit Pretend Play for Children with Autism

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 598 - 610
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    Children with autism spectrum condition (ASC) suffer from deficits or developmental delays in symbolic thinking. In particular, they are often found lacking in pretend play during early childhood. Researchers believe that they encounter difficulty in generating and maintaining mental representation of pretense coupled with the immediate reality. We have developed an interactive system that explores the potential of Augmented Reality (AR) technology to visually conceptualize the representation of pretense within an open-ended play environment. Results from an empirical study involving children with ASC aged 4 to 7 demonstrated a significant improvement of pretend play in terms of frequency, duration and relevance using the AR system in comparison to a non computer-assisted situation. We investigated individual differences, skill transfer, system usability and limitations of the proposed AR system. We discuss design guidelines for future AR systems for children with ASC and other pervasive developmental disorders. View full abstract»

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  • Augmented Reality Binoculars

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 611 - 623
    Multimedia
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    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. View full abstract»

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  • 1.5D Egocentric Dynamic Network Visualization

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 624 - 637
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    Dynamic network visualization has been a challenging research topic due to the visual and computational complexity introduced by the extra time dimension. Existing solutions are usually good for overview and presentation tasks, but not for the interactive analysis of a large dynamic network. We introduce in this paper a new approach which considers only the dynamic network central to a focus node, also known as the egocentric dynamic network. Our major contribution is a novel 1.5D visualization design which greatly reduces the visual complexity of the dynamic network without sacrificing the topological and temporal context central to the focus node. In our design, the egocentric dynamic network is presented in a single static view, supporting rich analysis through user interactions on both time and network. We propose a general framework for the 1.5D visualization approach, including the data processing pipeline, the visualization algorithm design, and customized interaction methods. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on egocentric dynamic network analysis tasks, through case studies and a controlled user experiment comparing with three baseline dynamic network visualization methods. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Text Outline and Contrast Polarity on AR Text Readability in Industrial Lighting

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 638 - 651
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    Text readability with augmented reality head-worn displays is critical and at present time, there are no standard guidelines to follow. The readability depends mainly on background lighting, display technology (i.e., OST: optical see-through or VST: video see-through), and text style (e.g., plain text, outline or billboard). In this work, we addressed the readability limits for industrial activities. We experimented the effects of two background illuminances levels (1,000 lx for very fine basic industrial tasks and 4,000 lx for fine machining), two commercially available head-worn display technologies, variable outline widths and contrast polarity of text. We analyzed the performance of 12 subjects by collecting about 3,400 measurements using a specific test application and followed by qualitative interviews. With high illuminances, VST performed better than OST, regardless of contrast polarity and outline width. We found that negative contrast polarity is preferable with VST, and that just a minimum outline (1 px) around black text is optimal. On the contrary, positive contrast polarity should be used with OST and outline is not effective. Therefore, we evaluated the usage limits of the OST by sampling its contrast sensitivity function. View full abstract»

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  • On Linear Spaces of Polyhedral Meshes

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 652 - 662
    Multimedia
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    Polyhedral meshes (PM)—meshes having planar faces—have enjoyed a rise in popularity in recent years due to their importance in architectural and industrial design. However, they are also notoriously difficult to generate and manipulate. Previous methods start with a smooth surface and then apply elaborate meshing schemes to create polyhedral meshes approximating the surface. In this paper, we describe a reverse approach: given the topology of a mesh, we explore the space of possible planar meshes having that topology. Our approach is based on a complete characterization of the maximal linear spaces of polyhedral meshes contained in the curved manifold of polyhedral meshes with a given topology. We show that these linear spaces can be described as nullspaces of differential operators, much like harmonic functions are nullspaces of the Laplacian operator. An analysis of this operator provides tools for global and local design of a polyhedral mesh, which fully expose the geometric possibilities and limitations of the given topology. View full abstract»

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  • Temporal Video Filtering and Exposure Control for Perceptual Motion Blur

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 663 - 671
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    We propose the computation of a perceptual motion blur in videos. Our technique takes the predicted eye motion into account when watching the video. Compared to traditional motion blur recorded by a video camera our approach results in a perceptual blur that is closer to reality. This postprocess can also be used to simulate different shutter effects or for other artistic purposes. It handles real and artificial video input, is easy to compute and has a low additional cost for rendered content. We illustrate its advantages in a user study using eye tracking. View full abstract»

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  • ThemeDelta: Dynamic Segmentations over Temporal Topic Models

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 672 - 685
    Multimedia
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    We present ThemeDelta, a visual analytics system for extracting and visualizing temporal trends, clustering, and reorganization in time-indexed textual datasets. ThemeDelta is supported by a dynamic temporal segmentation algorithm that integrates with topic modeling algorithms to identify change points where significant shifts in topics occur. This algorithm detects not only the clustering and associations of keywords in a time period, but also their convergence into topics (groups of keywords) that may later diverge into new groups. The visual representation of ThemeDelta uses sinuous, variable-width lines to show this evolution on a timeline, utilizing color for categories, and line width for keyword strength. We demonstrate how interaction with ThemeDelta helps capture the rise and fall of topics by analyzing archives of historical newspapers, of U.S. presidential campaign speeches, and of social messages collected through iNeighbors, a web-based social website. ThemeDelta is evaluated using a qualitative expert user study involving three researchers from rhetoric and history using the historical newspapers corpus. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Visualization techniques and methodologies; visualization systems and software; volume visualization; flow visualization; multivariate visualization; modeling and surfaces; rendering; animation; user interfaces; visual progranuning; applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Leila De Floriani
Department of Computer Science, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering
University of Genova
16146 Genova (Italy)
ldf4tvcg@umiacs.umd.edu