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Data and Knowledge Systems for Manufacturing and Engineering, 1989., Second International Conference on

Date 16-18 Oct. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Second International Conference on Data and Knowledge Systems for Manufacturing and Engineering (IEEE Cat. No.89CH2806-8)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Systems design issues in manufacturing process control

    Page(s): 60 - 63
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    A manufacturing plant process control system generally has hierarchical layers of control and involves many elements of technology. A discussion is presented of the requirements and design issues for manufacturing process control (MPC). Much of the discussion focuses on process-control technology as it relates to system design View full abstract»

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  • A data model for engineering design objects

    Page(s): 49 - 58
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    Design objects in CAD applications have versions and participate in the construction of other more complex design objects. The author describes data model aspects of an experimental database system for CAD applications called Pegasus. The model is based on previously published work on extensible and object-oriented database systems. The novel idea of Pegasus is the reconciliation of two subtyping (inheritance) mechanisms: the first, called refinement, is based on the usual semantics of schema copying; the second, called extension, is based on the inheritance semantics between prototypes and their extensions. The author uses these modeling elements to show how generic and version objects as well as component occurrences of (generic or version) components can be modeled View full abstract»

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  • Schema design for a molecular biology laboratory information management system

    Page(s): 64 - 65
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    The development of the conceptual scheme for the database supporting the laboratory activities for the mapping phase of the Human Genome Project at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is discussed. This entailed recording the instances of molecular biology experiments, the data generated from the experiments, and the inventories of biological stocks and chemical compounds. The authors discuss the nature of the application, the major modeling problems they confront, and the methodology they have adopted to address some of these problems. The methodology they adopted combines elements of an extended entity-relation model with those of a data-flow model View full abstract»

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  • A relational query language interface to a hierarchical database management system

    Page(s): 105 - 112
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    The authors present an efficient structured query language (SQL) interface to an IMS hierarchical database management system (DBMS). This interface is a part of DATAPLEX, a heterogeneous distributed database management system that will provide location-transparent access to diverse databases using SQL in the engineering and manufacturing environment. The initial target DBMSs to be interfaced are IMS, DB2, and INGRES. For IMS, the hardest to provide with an SQL interface, an SQL interface called SQL/IMS was developed. A method which translates IMS data definitions is developed. A procedure which decomposes an SQL query into a set of simple IMS-processable queries and recomposes partial results is derived. SQL/IMS was tested using a small test database and a large production database. The performance of SQL/IMS is compared with that of another system used to access IMS data View full abstract»

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  • Parametric model: a conceptual framework for geometric modelling databases

    Page(s): 161 - 171
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    To reduce the time and effort involved, a database that supports the reusability of designs while effectively modeling the structure and behavior of engineering components with multiple features is essential. The conceptual model of this database should describe all the information related to an object in an application-independent manner to ensure data sharing and facilitate the implementation of data languages that simplify the design task. Most of the present-day solid modeling databases lack this kind of conceptual structure. The authors present a conceptual framework that attempts to meet the requirements outlined. Operations are defined on this framework to permit the reusability of the designs and modeling of the structure and behavior of a component using this framework is illustrated with suitable examples. This framework is supported by theory and operations on hypergraphs. The theory is discussed and tested against the requirements, and basic implementation is elaborated on View full abstract»

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  • Indexing technical data in a materials database

    Page(s): 12 - 18
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    Much of the data used by design engineers lack precision, particularly materials property data which are measured in inexact physical experiments and engineering tests. The indexing of such data needs to suit the various types of proximity searches of interest to an engineer. It is shown that B+-tree performance is best when the data are stored as specific values. A new structure, the interval tree, is presented and shown to be useful when much of the stored data is expressed in the form of ranges View full abstract»

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  • Building and optimizing an expert system for ATP design

    Page(s): 68 - 75
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    A description is presented of an expert system called ADES (ATP design expert system) for the design of automatic train-protection (ATP) systems. (An ATP system is a railway signaling system consisting of a set of logic circuits that control the safe movements of trains within a railway station.) Artificial intelligence techniques proved feasible to address this particular design problem, and ADES, which uses artificial intelligence techniques, makes it possible to design good control circuits to meet operational requirements rapidly by using well-structured, explicitly represented knowledge on ATP. ADES' inference engine works as a partial evaluator for the knowledge representation language KARL which is used to write design rules. Since every circuit produced by the expert system is still expressed in KARL, the KARL interpreter has also been used as a simulator for a designed circuit. Prototypes of the inference engine and the KARL interpreter have been implemented as extended Prolog metainterpreters View full abstract»

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  • Effects of local autonomy of global concurrency control in heterogeneous distributed database systems

    Page(s): 113 - 120
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    A heterogeneous distributed database system (HDDBS) is a system which integrates preexisting database systems to support global applications accessing more than one database. The difficulties and general approaches of global concurrency control in HDDBSs are studied. In particular, the author discusses the difficulties of maintaining global serializability in HDDBSs. The need for new strategies is established, and counterexamples to existing algorithms are given. An assumption usually made in addressing multidatabase systems is that the element databases are autonomous. The meaning of autonomy and its effects on designing global concurrency control algorithms are addressed. It is the goal of this study to motivate other researchers to realize the need for new correctness criteria by which concurrency control algorithms can be validated View full abstract»

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  • KRISYS: KBMS support for better CAD systems

    Page(s): 172 - 182
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    The authors propose a knowledge-base management system based on the integration of database and artificial intelligence technology that provides adequate capabilities for the construction of advanced CAD systems. The approach is evaluated in view of other systems and its suitability is demonstrated by means of some examples from the area of architectural design. Throughout the authors refine their views of advanced CAD and define some inherent characteristics of better CAD View full abstract»

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  • An expert system for the selection of a composite material

    Page(s): 140 - 141
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    An expert system for composite material selection starting from the user specification was developed. Since a database management system (DBMS) was necessary to manage the amount of information for material and application characterization, a logical interface between the Expert 2 system and the relational database was developed. This configuration allows complete separation between the database problem of material characteristic management and the rule-oriented material selection problem handled by the expert system View full abstract»

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  • A work-in-process tracking system for experimental manufacturing

    Page(s): 190 - 197
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    A work-in-process (WIP) tracking system directs and monitors the flow of product in a factory. The author describes a WIP tracking system that supports the management of complex process plans, ensures that products receive their intended processing, and can be used to determine the actual processing received by finished products. The two major features of the tracker are the representation of process plans as ordered trees of parameterized subprocess plans, and the logging of process data at each process step. The tree representation encourages modular process plans, which makes the plans easier to create and document, and is flexible enough to allow specific items to follow nonstandard subplans or to change plans after processing has begun. The log makes it possible to reconstruct the entire processing sequence of an item and permits measurement values obtained earlier in an item's processing to be used as the value of a later step's parameter, creating a form of feed-forward process control View full abstract»

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  • An integrated tool box for the electrical engineer

    Page(s): 144 - 147
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    The authors present concepts for the integration of software components such as CAD systems, document management systems and expert systems into a tool box for the electrical engineer and describe the architecture of such a system for computer-integrated engineering (CIE). The kernel of the tool box is an engineering database system based on an active DBMS for maintaining the logical integrity of engineering data. The schema of the engineering database consists of a predefined kernel schema of commonly used objects of electrical engineering and a user-definable part. A CIE modeling system is made available for the definition of user-specific data structures, relationships, and engineering rules View full abstract»

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  • An application of entity-relationship data modeling techniques to the automated manufacturing process

    Page(s): 206 - 215
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    An entity-relationship (E-R) model has been developed to generically represent aspects of process information flow in a hierarchical automated manufacturing facility. The facility is expected to be networked and to consist of a global controller, local controllers, etc. and IC processing equipment, organized in a hierarchical fashion. The development of the model is presented through a case study of an automated semiconductor manufacturing facility. In developing the model, subschemas are first developed for the various component modules in the facility. The modules are then incorporated using a form of E-R model clustering and integration techniques into a schema for the entire facility. The generic structural properties of the schema are clearly evident. The development and application of E-R constructs to model time sequencing and ordering aspects of process information flow in the facility are potential areas of future research View full abstract»

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  • Upgrading a complex object DBMS to full object-orientation: a case study

    Page(s): 122 - 130
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    The authors present the example of the DAMASCUS system as an approach to upgrading an existing DBMS with complex objects to support the whole palette of object-oriented features. They show how their current system fits into the overall architecture and which concepts and components have to be added. The resulting DBMS is projected as a data repository for nonstandard applications programmed in object-oriented as well as conventional languages. The authors claim that their approach can be regarded as a general one for nonstandard DBMS kernels View full abstract»

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  • Using a relational database as an index to a distributed object database in engineering design systems

    Page(s): 4 - 11
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    A description is given of a pragmatic architecture for engineering design systems that divides the databases of those systems into a relational database and an object-oriented database. In the architecture, the relational database is used to find designs in the object database, and the object database is used to support the concurrent editing of designs by multiple users and processes on networks of workstations. The architecture has the advantage of allowing the relational database to concentrate on providing fast indexing methods to find designs, and allowing the object database to concentrate on providing good concurrency and version control tools for design editing. The authors describe the two-part architecture, give classifications for the types of data that can be extracted from the object database and put into the relational database, and give formulas that can be used to quantify the size of the relational database View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosing novel faults

    Page(s): 84 - 93
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    Currently available diagnostic expert systems are limited as they cannot address novel situations and faults. Moreover, they cannot recognize such situations, which often lead to an incorrect diagnosis or at best an exhaustive search through their knowledge bases. The CONSOLIDATE system is a hybrid diagnostic system which integrates experiential and causal-model-based knowledge sources, which retains the efficiency of experiential-based approaches while providing a mechanism to recognize and address previously unobserved situations. A discussion is given the CONSOLIDATE system, issues related to novel fault hypothesis generation, and the approach utilized to address these issues View full abstract»

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  • Implementing a real-time scheduling system for VLSI production

    Page(s): 185 - 186
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    Classical scheduling theory has been far from successful in solving practical needs of the factory management. Management objectives are often many, ill-defined and changing. In general, the management is interested in a decision-support tool, facilitating specification of their objectives as they change, so that it can react to a constantly changing shop floor, making short-term and long-term planning decisions. The authors describe ReDS, which is a dynamic, intelligent and real-time factory scheduling environment. ReDS combines both artificial intelligence and operations research techniques, finding solutions which are not always optimal but acceptable to the changing needs of management View full abstract»

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  • A system for creating and manipulating mechanical part models based on PDES

    Page(s): 142 - 143
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    The Automated Manufacturing Research Facility of the National Institute of Standards and Technology is moving towards the use of PDES-based definitions for mechanical parts. (PDEs is the emerging product data exchange specification standard). This effort is in conjunction with NIST's designation as the National PDES testbed. Currently, commercial CAD systems do not directly support the use of PDES-based models and are generally not capable of representing much of the information specified by PDES in an integrated fashion. The author is implementing a system to address these limitations of CAD systems, demonstrating the functionality required for PDES-based part modeling. The design issues, architecture, and functionality of the system are presented View full abstract»

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  • A data translation tool for engineering systems

    Page(s): 96 - 104
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    A description is given of a data translation tool developed explicitly for engineering data. It is based on the ROSE 1.0 object-oriented engineering database system. The ROSE data model is flexible enough to handle a wide variety of engineering data structures, and the ROSE extended relational algebra provides the primitive operations needed to edit these data structures to translate engineering data from one form to another. The motivation, design, and implementation of this data translation tool are described, along with lessons learned in its development View full abstract»

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  • Design for manufacture: a knowledge-based approach

    Page(s): 198 - 205
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    The authors address the development of reasoning mechanism in order to link design and its associated downstream manufacturing requirements. A specific example is presented using the design of aircraft flap components through a computer-based or CAD system which also represents a framework for solving design problems in other domains. This forms the basis of a prototype to enable an evaluation and analysis of the reasoning methodology to be conducted, using artificial-intelligence tools. The prototype is designed to give assistance at different levels in the design and manufacturing processes including the introduction of novel methods of reasoning about potential products and manufacturing approaches View full abstract»

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  • Extending a relational DBMS to support complex objects

    Page(s): 131 - 137
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    The definition and manipulation of complex objects in an extended relational database management system are discussed. Complex object types are defined as relation domains encapsulated within methods written in LISP or C. Objects are structured using the set, array and list constructors concepts. Structured objects are manipulated using built-in functions. For a given application, the database administrator introduces the complex domains with the encapsulating methods within the DBMS meta-base using a specific command. Complex domains can be described using an hierarchy which makes possible the inheritance of methods along domains. The domain methods are directly used in the external data manipulation language, which is an extended version of SQL with object-oriented features. Graphical interface procedures are available to input and display nonstandard data. A fully running version of the system is commercially available for Sun Unix workstations. Only the list constructor is available in the current version View full abstract»

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  • Ancestor-controlled submodule inclusion in design databases

    Page(s): 28 - 37
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    A paradigm is proposed for representing hierarchically specified design data in CAD database systems where there are to be alternate expansions of hierarchical modules. The paradigm is based on an ancestor-based expansion scheme to control which instances of submodules are to be placed within each instance of a given module, and is formalized in a model called a VDAG. The approach is aimed at reducing storage space in engineering design database systems, and providing a means for designers to specify alternate expansions of a module. The VDAG model is defined, and a mechanism whereby a VDAG generates an exploded forest of design trees is described. Algorithms are provided which, given a VDAG or VDAGs, generate design forests, determine whether one module is contained by a larger module, extract a version from a VDAG, test whether two VDAGs are equivalent, and try to reduce the size of a VDAG. Problems such as module containment and VDAG inequivalence are shown to be NP-complete, and the problems of finding a minimum-sized VDAG equivalent to a given VDAG NP-hard View full abstract»

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  • CRONOS-II: a knowledge-based scheduler for complex manufacturing environments

    Page(s): 76 - 83
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    The authors describe CRONOS-II, a knowledge-based scheduler that can model both technological and temporal constraints needed to represent realistic production plans. This scheduler is able to decompose the execution of elementary tasks into parts. Furthermore, it offers the possibility to control the global quality of the produced schedules. From the technical point of view, it implements a depth-first heuristic-guided search joined to an original failure-driven backtracking mechanism View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic scheduling in a steel plant using expert system

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    Summary form only given. An interactive expert system application is described for scheduling of resources in continuous manufacturing of a variety of products in a hierarchically distributed control system. The system allows the relaxation of certain rule constraints to attain a feasible schedule when none is available and the processing of an expedited/special order even when this results in violating one or more constraints. The information on a scheduled production run not meeting the specification is transmitted to the expert system application from lower-level systems in the hierarchy, which perform monitoring and control of the production equipment. The technique is illustrated with an application in steel production View full abstract»

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