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System Sciences, 1989. Vol.III: Decision Support and Knowledge Based Systems Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on

Date 3-6 Jan. 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 101
  • Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Vol.III: Decision Support and Knowledge Based Systems Track (Cat. No.89TH0244-4)

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  • A theoretical framework for measuring the impact of information technology in the human resource function: untapped potential or unfulfilled promises?

    Page(s): 832 - 841 vol.3
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    The corporate human resource function is an area that has undergone a great increase in computer support. Unfortunately, human resource information systems (HRIS) bring with them problems endemic to system design as well as issues to resolve. The author extends a theoretical rationale from which to examine these problems and a framework from which to examine the impact of HRIS on the human resource function. The theoretical approach is based in the strategic human resource concept of C. Lengnick-Hall (1988) and A.S. Tsui (1984). From it is derived the framework, called the human strategic resource matrix. This matrix plots both internal and external strategic components of an organization against a five-stage model of organizational development: the stages run from initiation of the component to its full integration into use. Each cell in the matrix contains the human resources needed in that area at that stage View full abstract»

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  • The Management Information Systems Research Center at the University of Minnesota: a support mechanism

    Page(s): 843 - 845 vol.3
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    The Management Information Systems Research Center (MISRC) at the University of Minnesota is described in terms of its background, functions, and activities. Stress is placed on how the research center serves as a support mechanism for MIS faculty research at the University View full abstract»

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  • Reusing structured models via model integration

    Page(s): 601 - 611 vol.3
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    A review is presented of reusability and modularity ideas from the software engineering literature, most of which are applicable to the modeling context. Many features of structured modeling support reusability and modularity, and these are noted. The main focus, however, is on achieving reusability and modularity by the integration of two or more model schemas. A five-step approach for integrating schemas written in SML (Structured Modeling Language) is proposed for this purpose. Examples are given to illustrate this approach, and the pros and cons of structured modeling for reuse are discussed at some length View full abstract»

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  • GDSS laboratory experiments and field studies: closing the gap

    Page(s): 300 - 309 vol.3
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    The authors highlight key differences between previous experimental use of GDSS (group decision support systems) and the previous use of GDSS by business groups, and to discuss the implications that these differences have for researchers in designing future GDSS research. The authors examine previous GDSS laboratory studies and field studies. They then highlight key differences for researchers between these experimental sessions and business group sessions. These differences include organizational context, group characteristics, group size, task, GDSS support, information management needs, and group work process. They discuss two sets of implications for researchers that follow these key differences. First, the need to embark on a synergistic program of research that combines experimental research with field studies is examined. Secondly, the authors present a series of suggestions for enhancing experimental and field study GDSS research View full abstract»

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  • HELM: Hierarchical Environment for Linear Modeling. I. The schema

    Page(s): 449 - 458 vol.3
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    A description is given of the modeling language of the HELM (Hierarchical Environment for Linear Modeling) system for conceptualizing, organizing and specifying the model schema of large-scale linear programming problems. The authors show how to transform the standard linear programming form into the HELM model structure. A formal detailed description of HELM syntax is provided, and the HELM process of model integration is described. The use of the system is demonstrated with an example View full abstract»

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  • A cost analysis of the software dilemma: to maintain or to replace

    Page(s): 89 - 98 vol.3
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    The authors develop an analytical model for determining the optimal rewriting time. They consider two rewriting strategies involving two different technologies. Several interesting propositions with managerial implications emerge from the analysis. These include the impacts of increasing maintenance requirements and unstructuredness of the technology on the optimal rewriting time, the differences in replacement times for the two technologies, and the effects of system integration requirements on replacement decisions View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of four recent GDSS experiments

    Page(s): 397 - 402 vol.3
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    The author briefly discusses how GDSS (group decision support systems) have been dealt with in some of the literature to date, arguing that GDSSs are sometimes considered as a single class of systems. He compares four recent GDSS experiments, each conducted at a different university using a different system, to illustrate the differences that exist between design philosophies. The results suggested that GDSSs should not be thought of as a single class of systems. The comparison also illustrates that GDSS researchers are often not investigating the same problem, even though their research is nominally about GDSS, so that they should use caution when they make generalizations about their findings View full abstract»

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  • Controlling the behavior of knowledge sources within SONIA

    Page(s): 221 - 228 vol.3
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    SONIA is a job-shop scheduling system designed to detect and react to inconsistencies between a scheduling plan and the actual events on a shop floor. It is provided with a BB1-like blackboard architecture for coordinating the activation of various scheduling and analyzing knowledge sources. Most of the knowledge sources used by SONIA are flexible, allowing improvement of the efficiency of SONIA's problem-solving. The authors investigate and discuss the various types of behavior that knowledge sources for scheduling and analyzing can have View full abstract»

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  • Architectural requirements for integrating group decision support systems into the daily managerial experience

    Page(s): 321 - 325 vol.3
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    The authors develop system requirements for ongoing temporally and geographically distributed decision-making. They concentrate on the setting called the local area decision network (LADN), which is characterized as having geographically distributed decision group members working at their own convenience, using familiar support aids, and proceeding at their own pace. Specifically, the technical, decision modeling, and machine-induced group communication features are outlined View full abstract»

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  • A framework to support managerial activities using office information systems

    Page(s): 532 - 540 vol.3
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    A broad discussion is presented of the problems and issues involved in the development of integrated office systems to support higher-level tasks of managers. The authors provide conceptual integration by establishing a framework for the office activities of managers. They discuss the technological integration of disparate office systems through architecture and design of an integrated office information system (IOIS). The IOIS described was developed from the integration of four IOISs at the University of Arizona: the integrated spreadsheet-based inferencing systems (ISBIS); Plexsys planning software (Plexware); the Resource Management Expert (RME); and an intelligent mail system (AIMAIL) View full abstract»

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  • Organizational learning systems

    Page(s): 492 - 503 vol.3
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    A description is given of the requirements for a computer-based system to support organizational learning. Cognitive mapping is suggested as the means for representing action-response beliefs. A distributed system supporting both individual maps and a collective map is described View full abstract»

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  • Inter-database instance identification in composite information systems

    Page(s): 677 - 684 vol.3
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    An examination is made of the issue of joining information about the same instance across disparate databases in a CIS (composite information system) environment. A technique called interdatabase instance identification is presented. It uses a combination of database management systems and artificial intelligence techniques. Common attributes in the disparate databases are applied first to reduce the number of potential candidates for the same instance. Other attributes in these databases, auxiliary databases, and inferencing rules are utilized to identify the same instance. A detailed example of the interdatabase instance identification technique is presented, using an operational research prototype View full abstract»

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  • Exploring active decision support: the JANUS project

    Page(s): 33 - 45 vol.3
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    A description is given of the authors' research approach for developing active decision support systems. They provide a detailed discussion of research framework, methodology, and system architecture for developing advanced forms of process support and intellectual support. The authors present the details of the JANUS system, their research prototype. They discuss the contributions of the JANUS work and summarize their experiences and plans for the future View full abstract»

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  • Information search heuristics based upon profitability

    Page(s): 99 - 104 vol.3
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    Heuristics are developed for information scanning activities in large collections of information. These search heuristics are consistent with human information processing behavior identified in prior empirical research. They rely on available knowledge, and provide a guide for the design of computer-based systems which support information scanning. Conclusions are presented which describe how to incorporate time and subjective information profitability into an optimal search strategy, as well as appropriate information to elicit during queries View full abstract»

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  • The TEIES design and objectives: computer mediated communications and tailorability

    Page(s): 403 - 411 vol.3
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    An overview is presented of the current design of TEIES (Tailorable Electronic Information Exchange System). This system is intended to provide sufficient adaptability to allow it to support a wide range of applications in the areas of collaborative systems and group decision support systems. It is also intended to allow complete integration of communication and information services for users and groups View full abstract»

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  • A knowledge-based DSS for supporting ill-structured multiple criteria decisions

    Page(s): 229 - 240 vol.3
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    Focusing on qualitative reasoning processes as a key area of A1 (artificial intelligence) application for decision support, the authors propose an architecture for designing an intelligent DSS (decision-support system) that is intended to aid in MCDM (multiple-criteria decision making) in ill-structured situations. An MCDM DSS, for its maximum contribution to organizational problem-solving, must be capable of lending effective support to high-level as well as low-level management decisions. A commercial loan approval judgement case is described to illustrate the real-world situation where decisions usually require a high degree of intuition and subjective judgement. Development of a prototype intended to partially represent application of the architecture is described. The authors conclude with suggestions for research extensions View full abstract»

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  • Defeasible logic and temporal projection

    Page(s): 575 - 581 vol.3
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    A novel nonmonotonic system called defeasible logic is presented that disarms the Yale shooting problem and other familiar examples of common sense reasoning that cause problems for many nonmonotonic systems, including examples that involve inheritance hierarchies with exceptions. Defeasible logic is easily implemented as an extension to Prolog, and it has knowledge-representation capabilities not found in other recent nonmonotonic systems View full abstract»

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  • A consultant to assist students in solving statistics problems

    Page(s): 439 - 448 vol.3
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    The statistical consultant described in this paper incorporates a knowledge base in an educational tool for novices in statistical decision-making to use in choosing a statistical technique. The heart of the system is the rule base for differentiating between statistics. The rules are based on five questions which the data can answer, as well as the type of data, the number of variables, and any dependent/independent relationships which exist between the variables. Twenty-nine statistics and the rules for choosing them are in the rule sets. The consultant was tested against the usual textbook method with two different groups of users, 25 undergraduates and 19 doctoral students. The results were that the computer-assisted students in both samples correctly solved a larger proportion of problems despite a conservative test which favored the textbook users and also took longer to find an appropriate solution View full abstract»

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  • Social networking for successful utilization of technology

    Page(s): 693 - 700 vol.3
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    This study investigates the impact that managerial networking knowledge has on the successful use of technologies in firms. A survey primarily of chief executive officers and vice presidents of 30 small manufacturing companies in a tristate region of the Midwest USA was conducted to determine the role that managerial networking knowledge has on (1) the overall number of technologies that a firm introduces and (2) the success rate of technology introduction as measured through usage and overall satisfaction. A mathematical model is constructed and used to analyze the effect of networking knowledge on the probability that an appropriate technology is chosen and used to increase the firm's value. The results of both the survey and the analysis show that managerial competence, defined as networking knowledge, is a critical success factor in technology utilization View full abstract»

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  • AIS: a foundation for practical artificially intelligent systems

    Page(s): 685 - 692 vol.3
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    The design of the Artificial Intelligence Substrate (AIS) is presented. It is a Lisp-based knowledge representation language (KRL) to support large-scale distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) applications. AIS uses a two-level data model. One level acts as a permanent repository of information and the other contains a partial working set of it. The basic data model stores information as entities and relational tuples. Demons, which are procedures that respond to pattern-matched transactions, are used to maintain consistency of the database and to automate standard activities. On top of the entity-relationship data model an object-oriented scheme has been implemented. A forward- and backward-chained rule-based system also has been developed in terms of the object-oriented system. Each of these knowledge representation schemes have associated optimization strategies. Finally, an automatic classification algorithm is available so that domain models can be constructed from exemplars View full abstract»

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  • The implications of group support technologies: an evaluation of the emipirical research

    Page(s): 326 - 336 vol.3
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    The authors define and differentiate two broad technological support systems for group processes: group decision support systems (GDSS), and group communication support systems (GCSS). They present a framework and method for analyzing the impact of such information systems on groups. They develop the framework from the literature of organization behavior and group psychology and apply it to the literature of management information systems. The authors review and compare empirical research and findings concerned with the impact of GDSS and GCSS on groups. Five major implications stem from the analysis: (a) there is a lack of research on some important formal aspects of groups; (b) there is a paucity of research on the impacts of GDSS and GCSS on the informal dimension of groups; (c) there is a need to move away from laboratory settings to field study in organization settings; (d) more research is needed on the stages in group development and how they affect the impact of GDSS and GCSS; and (e) more research is needed to understand how the structure imposed by the technological supports affect group processes View full abstract»

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  • STRATEGY 1: distributed military strategy expert system on a microcomputer Ethernet

    Page(s): 660 - 668 vol.3
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    The authors introduce STRATEGY 1, a distributed military strategy expert system on the Ethernet, which is used in requirement prediction for Chinese defense. They describe the system architecture, the methodology of distributed problem-solving by multiple expert systems using Lisp, Prolog, and fuzzy methods, communication among workstations, and graphic display of the results by AUTOCAD and AUTOLISP View full abstract»

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  • Embedding stakeholder analysis in object oriented organizational modeling

    Page(s): 80 - 86 vol.3
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    Techniques are described which are used by the authors to introduce stakeholder analysis into an object-oriented organizational model. Knowledge-based representations of stakeholders' positions are used to assess their impact on simulated decision scenarios. The architecture of an object/rule-oriented stakeholder tool is described, as well as its interfaces with an object-oriented environment for organizational modeling. The process used by the authors for eliciting positions and modeling their impact on the organization is also described View full abstract»

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  • Group operating systems for decision factories of the future: an extended relational GDSS architecture

    Page(s): 280 - 290 vol.3
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    The authors focus on technological issues for a unifying GDSS (group-decision-support system architecture) architecture. A relational GDSS architecture using extended database concepts and an associated processing kernel or GDSS operating system (GOS) are set forth. The proposed architecture is sufficiently robust to represent existing and anticipated group decision support systems. Major benefits include: (1) system configuration, session control, group work products, and research variable settings are stored in and can be retrieved from a common database; (2) a GOS is recognised to be a query processor used to define, control, and coordinate group sessions; (3) the relational structure supports distributed implementations; and (4) the architecture is consistent with research proposing the integration of data, models, and solvers for decision applications View full abstract»

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