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Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1990. ., 40th

Date 20-23 May 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 166
  • 1990 Proceedings. 40th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Cat. No.90CH2893-6)

    Publication Year: 1990
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The evolution of metallized film capacitors towards surface mounting technology

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1025 - 1033 vol.2
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    It has been demonstrated that plastic film chip capacitors are suitable for SMT (surface-mount technology) requirements. The only drawback is a mechanical size that is three times larger than the MLC (multilayer capacitor) chip, limiting the use of the film chips in the field of mixed technology (leaded+leadless). Film chip becomes a necessity where a medium-high capacitance value is required with high stability, low failure rate, low nonlinear distortion, and no piezoelectric effect, as for Hi-Fi application, car radio, optical reading, and data-line transmission View full abstract»

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  • Material considerations for multilayer ceramic capacitors

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 84 - 88 vol.1
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    The role of material properties in the fabrication of multilayer ceramic structures is examined with emphasis on the shrinkage behavior of both the ceramic and the metallurgy used in the fabrication of the multilayer ceramic capacitors. A typical ceramic material used is barium titanate, and the typical electrode used is made of palladium. Shrinkage behavior is key to the mechanical integrity of the multilayer ceramic capacitors. The author discusses the effect of physical parameters such as particle size, shape, and surface area, as well as the effect of processing parameters. Some methods of altering the shrinkage behavior are also described. It is shown that an important consideration in the case of palladium electrodes made of fine palladium powders is the oxidation of palladium in air and the accompanying volume change View full abstract»

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  • Effect of board design and assembly process on leakage currents of ceramic chip capacitors

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1035 - 1041 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An experiment designed to study the effects of mounting pad configurations on the tendency toward thermal cracking and/or leakage currents of 1206 and 0805-size SMCs (surface-mounted ceramic chip capacitors) was conducted. The results show that, with the maximum delta temperature of 135°C, vias, traces, long pads, and heat sinks do not cause thermal cracking. No significant differences were found between SMCs mounted on FR-4 boards and FR-2 boards. The differences in capacitor dielectrics were insignificant, except that one particular capacitor designed with a thinner dielectric layer suffered more failures View full abstract»

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  • New screen-printable polyimide for IC devices

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 711 - 716 vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)  

    In order to develop a screen-printable polyimide paste, the structures, properties, and ratios of three major paste components (filler, binder, and solvent) were studied, and a film-forming strategy was established. This strategy comprises a novel type of polyimide particle filler, which can be dissolved in the binder and the solvent under the curing condition. A screen-printable polyimide paste was developed using this strategy. This paste gives uniform film with better mechanical properties than conventional polyimide paste, which comprises an insoluble polyimide particle filler. The effect of the solubility parameter of the solvent on mask swelling and moisture resistance was also examined. It was also examined. It was found that a lactone with a solubility parameter value of 18~20 (MJ/m3)1/2 is suitable as a paste solvent. The paste affords uniform pinhole-free polyimide films with good mechanical properties. As the mask swelling is low, the lifetime of stencil is longer than that of conventional pastes View full abstract»

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  • High-density, high speed, board-to-board stripline connector

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 860 - 864 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The AMP Mini-TBC stripline connector is described. This connector embodies a concept which approaches homogeneity across the connection of two printed circuit cards. Stripline characteristics of the board are maintained through the connector and make the connector virtually transparent to the circuit. As a result of contact miniaturization, spacing is maintained at 0.100-in centerlines, and the application of the product requires little change on the part of printed circuit board designers and fabricators. The electrical commoning of alternate columns of contacts provides economical application in environments where shielding is of paramount importance. In situations requiring district power distribution and a low-inductance path to ground, sufficient bulk is provided to conduct 1.5 A continuously (28 A per 20-column module, per power blade). Mechanical staging of ground, power, and signal contacts is generously set at 0.062-in nominal with 0.100 in of nominal wipe on the signal pin. This stripline connector offers the systems designer a cost-effective solution for applications requiring stripline performance at sub-nanosecond edge speed View full abstract»

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  • Automatic optical inspection (AOI)

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 659 - 661 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The benefits of AOI are described, and an overview and technological tradeoffs of the AOI of the thin-film microchip module (TFMCM) are presented. It is noted that AOI has been proven to be essential in the production of electronic products such as printed circuit boards (PCBs) and photomasks. Because the structure and the production process of TF MCMs resemble those of these products, AOI is very likely to become imperative in the manufacturing process of multichip modules (MCMs). AOI technology is based on sophisticated image-processing techniques using advanced software algorithms with state-of-the-art hardware. Therefore, the investment in such equipment is large and requires deep understanding for cost justification, and the selection among competing vendors is hard to make. The continuous introduction of new models and improvements further amplifies the need to carefully consider the choice, ensuring that the equipment will keep up with the process and produce the best results for a long period View full abstract»

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  • ESD packaging requirements for an opto-electronic receiver module

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 44 - 48 vol.1
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    Sensitive circuits contained in an optoelectronic receiver module must meet worldwide standards for electrostatic discharge (ESD). Enclosing these circuits in a package becomes an extremely important consideration in achieving acceptable module performance. The authors describe the packaging requirements for an optoelectronic module that will meet the objective. Experimental tests were conducted on various packaging designs to determine the significant features affecting ESD susceptibility. Areas investigated included metallurgical vs. metal-filled epoxy assembly of the package elements (housing, lid, substrate), and low resistance vs. full closure between the packaging elements. The packaging features required to achieve acceptable ESD voltage levels were determined and implemented in the design View full abstract»

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  • Compliance metrics for surface mount component lead design

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1054 - 1063 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    A diagonal lead stiffness metric which measures the flexural compliance of the corner-most leads in the package diagonal direction is developed. The diagonal lead compliance is determined by the component aspect ratio, flexural spring constants, and lead position on the package. The nominal diagonal force transmitted to the corner-most SM (surface-mount) solder connections during operational thermal cycling is controlled by the local diagonal lead stiffness, device-substrate thermal-expansion mismatch, and component dimensions. The author quantifies the diagonal transmitted force and examines the interaction between diagonal lead stiffness, diagonal force, and SM component dimensions. Parametric evaluation of the diagonal spring constant and diagonal force has been performed over a wide range of component aspect ratio and lead-compliance characteristics. It is concluded that the diagonal lead stiffness and diagonal transmitted force are useful comparative metrics for SM leaded components, since these parameters explicitly account for the inherent flexural lead compliance and package dimensions. The diagonal spring constant is a key parameter in currently available tools for predicting long-term SM solder attachment reliability View full abstract»

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  • Trends in laser packaging

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 185 - 192 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    The author reviews the advances in the electrical, mechanical, and optical design of laser packages over the past few years and indicates the current state of the art. The examples focus on how changes in the design and materials have resulted in performance improvements and cost reductions. A list of desirable future laser packages is presented View full abstract»

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  • Mechanism of electro-migration in ceramic package induced by chip-coating polyimide

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 894 - 899 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The mechanism of electromigration between the inner leads in a ceramic package was investigated. The short-circuit failure between the neighboring pins of the ceramic package, in which a polyimide-coated LSI chip was assembled, was observed in tests after burn in. An analysis of the bypass which caused the failure found that the composition of the bypass was electromigrated nickel from the inner lead. Gas analysis showed that N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and water were included in the package. From these analyses, it was found that the progress of the migration was as follows: (1) NMP and water were evaporated from polyimide film during burn in if the polyimide was insufficiently baked; (2) NMP condensed on the inner leads and absorbed water during cooling to room temperature; and (3) the electromigration occurred between the inner leads with electric potential. This failure was eliminated by sufficiently baking the polyimide coating View full abstract»

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  • Computer integrated manufacturing-an enterprise view

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 662 - 669 vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Since the mid 1980s, IBM sites have been implementing the CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing) philosophy, resulting in significant improvements in cost, resources, and responsiveness. In the process of reviewing the information systems applications, it became apparent that many applications performed the same or similar functions. This has resulted in a building-block approach to CIM applications. Base applications will provide common functions. Customers will then be able to supplement these functions with applications common to their business areas. Customers will be able to add their own unique applications to address specific requirements. IBM is working closely with its customers and internal users to define the common requirements. This partnership with customers provides improved requirements definition, reduced development and maintenance costs, the ability to test in production environments, and accelerated delivery to the marketplace View full abstract»

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  • Planar waveguide devices on silicon

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 55 - 59 vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
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    A wide variety of planar optical waveguide devices were developed based on silica-glass-on-silicon technology. High-performance waveguides with low loss and precisely controlled geometry are formed on silicon substrates by a combination of flame hydrolysis deposition and photolithographic and reactive ion etching processes. This optical-fiber-compatible planar waveguide technology is flexible enough to provide a wide variety of high-performance and cost-effective optical devices such as branching, wavelength division multidemultiplexer, frequency control, switching and interconnection devices View full abstract»

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  • Development of an automated fiber optic data link test station

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1065 - 1069 vol.2
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    Fiber-optic data links require objective, repeatable verification of electrooptic parameters during manufacture and development. An assemblage of computer-controlled test equipment which facilitates the orderly semiautomatic data-collection process is described. Brief discussions of test issues and equipment selections are presented View full abstract»

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  • Thermosonic gold-ball bond accelerated life test

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 436 - 441 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Accelerated aging tests on gold-ball bonds in hermetic packages have been conducted at 350°C, 300°C, 250°C, and 200°C to determine time to failure, activation energy of failure, and the electrical/mechanical degradation at failure. Four different aluminium/1% silicon metallizations were tested: evaporated metal with P-glass (passivation-glass) contamination, evaporated metal with no P-glass contamination, sputtered metal with P-glass contamination, and sputtered metal with no P-glass contamination. The measured activation energies were from 0.4 to 1.1 eV. Two failure modes were encountered; one was an electrical open with good mechanical strength, and the second was an electrical open that resulted from a premature ball lift caused by voiding under the ball bond. The projected time to failure using an Arrhenius plot indicated that the functional life of gold-ball bonds can exceed 20 yr at ambient temperature if the wire-bonder setup is optimized and the contamination level is low View full abstract»

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  • The reliability of AlN power hybrids using Cu thick film conductive

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 111 - 115 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A power hybrid construction using AlN substrates, copper thick-film conductives, and a power chip has been evaluated. Tests included aged adhesion of the copper thick film, thermal conductivity of the substrate, thermal conductivity of the hybrid, thermal shock of the hybrid, and power cycling of the hybrid. It was found that a copper thick-film conductive can be made to adhere well to AlN. A wire-bondable copper thick-film conductive is possible, but presently needs some work. In this construction, an AlN 170 w/mk substrate will dissipate almost twice the power of a 96% Al2O3 substrate and maintain the same chip temperature. The AlN units are good for 10000 cycles of thermal shock; the Al2O3 are not. For the same construction, the AlN units can handle over four times the power cycles of the Al2O3 units. The solder thickness between the chip and the conductive is a major factor in power-cycle reliability View full abstract»

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  • A new draft specification for surface mounting components

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 264 - 268 vol.1
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    A specification which develops tests to assess the ability of an SMD (surface-mount device), regardless of shape, size, or component family, to withstand the various surface-mount assembly processes is described. The specification identifies these process steps and assesses the stresses which they place upon the SMD. For each type of solder process, a detailed consideration is made of the time/temperature profile. This allows the derivation of severity classifications and the formulation of test methods for solderability, resistance to solder heat, and resistance to dissolution of metallization which are applicable to one or more of the solder attachment techniques. The specification considers substrate cleaning and develops test methods to assess the ability of the SMD to withstand the various cleaning techniques available. Attention is also given to resistance to mechanical forces, including the ability of the SMD to withstand pick and placement forces, substrate bending, and shear test View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic analysis of impact pinning AL203 ceramic substrates

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 401 - 407 vol.1
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    Impact pinning is used to stake pins into a ceramic substrate by striking cylindrical pins with a ballistic piston to cold-form a head and a bulge on opposite sides of the substrate. The dynamics and controlling mechanisms of this process are elucidated. The deformation of the pins is the result of the competing mechanisms of simple axial compression and dynamic buckling induced by the applied force. Sinusoidal buckling wave modes are set up initially in each pin, but are relatively unimportant until after the pins fill the holding die cavities. The pins next impinge the substrate through-holes' walls, and head formation commences. Continued pin buckling causes impingement to become more severe, and the pins capture the substrate. The substrate abruptly accelerates, causing the bulge to form. The development of the bulge stops the motion of the substrate. Head formation is completed. The entire sequence of events takes less than 100 μs (in the case of interest). Quantitative analysis and modeling reveal the details of process evolution. Theoretical calculations were verified experimentally View full abstract»

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  • Local mismatches in SM solder joint FE analysis

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 954 - 957 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    The relative effects of material properties on the attachment reliability of 68 I/O (input/output) 50-mil pitch PLCC (plastic leaded chip carriers) were assessed using FEA (finite-element analysis). Initially, the intent was to rank the local lead/solder and solder/PWB (printed wiring board) CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) mismatches against the global device/PWB CTE mismatch as the driving cause for crack initiation. The experimental design changed only the CTE and elastic modulus of the PLCC lead frames. Under conditions of pure thermal expansion and in the absence of additional induced mechanical forces, such as with board flexure, the localized interfacial CTE mismatches are shown to be the primary cause of plastic strains in surface-mount solder joints. The belief that lead compliancy is a valid parameter for insuring attachment reliability is addressed and confirmed, but the differential strains caused by loading conditions equivalent to reducing the lead spring constants by an order of magnitude yield only a factor of three increase in the maximum plastic strain values on FR-4 PWBs. In contrast, altering the interfacial CTE differences by changing from an FR-4 to a Kevlar substrate or from a copper to Kovar lead frame, induces order-of-magnitude differences in the solder-joint plastic strains View full abstract»

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  • Development of low elastic modulus die attach material and clean cure process

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 835 - 839 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Thermal stress in a large silicon die bonded to a copper lead frame was investigated using the finite-element method and a die-bonding experiment. It was found that even curing at a temperature as low as 100°C is not sufficient to reduce the thermal stress and that decreasing the Young's modulus of the die-bond adhesive to less than 100 MPa is more effective than lowering the cure temperature. Based upon the calculation results, silicon elastomer with a hydrosilylation reaction curing mechanism was selected as a die-bond adhesive, considering both reliability and productivity. Volatile organic species such as cyclic siloxane were intensively removed from the adhesive to minimize contamination on the die surface. Furthermore, a clean curing process was developed to increase the process margin. The newly developed die-bond adhesive, together with the novel curing system, has enabled the bonding of a large die to a copper lead frame with good reliability and productivity. This technology has been applied to the assembly of memory device packages View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of aqueous cleaning of PWAs with wave and reflow soldered components

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 236 - 246 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors report results obtained using production machines in a test program that started in the first quarter of 1989. Chemical and physical evaluation of different kinds of commercial water-soluble solder creams and fluxes was first performed. Three products were selected and subjected to test in order to qualify their application in the professional field for wave soldering and reflow processes, and they were compared to the standard CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) cleaning procedure. Ionic contamination and THB (temperature-humidity-bias) tests were performed on ad hoc designed PWAs (printed wiring assemblies). It was found that acceptable cleanliness is obtained with water-soluble products provided that the washing machine has suitable spray pressure, nozzle angles, and drying section. Reliability tests on components are in progress to evaluate the possible detrimental effects of residual contaminants when moisture is present. Preliminary results of this step are given View full abstract»

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  • Experimental measurements of surface mount component lead stiffness

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 934 - 941 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    An approach to the experimental determination of lead stiffness (the straddle board method) has been used to assess surface-mount package leads of actual service dimensions. Correlation was observed between the experimental data and trends of predicted values from the linear elastic beam model. However, the simplified model cannot be used to predict actual performance. Current 3D finite-element analysis shows good correlation and predictive capability. Lead stiffness values of PLCC (plastic leaded chip carrier), cerquad (ceramic quad flat pack), and PQFP (plastic quad flat pack) packages have been measured. Transverse values exceed lateral for PLCC and cerquad packages. Cerquad packages exhibit lower stiffness than PLCC. This behavior can be attributed to the longer shoulder length of the cerquad lead and thinner lead thickness, which offsets the effect of the elastic modulus. PQFP leads are in order of magnitude more compliant than the 50-mil pitch J-lead configuration due to the smaller lead cross section and the gull-wing configuration. The board-level solder-joint reliability of PQFP packages is expected to exceed that of the established PLCC component because of the increased lead compliancy View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical characteristics of 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag solder in micro-bonding

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 510 - 517 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    The influence of gold on the tensile properties and microstructure of 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag solder and the thermal fatigue life of a 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag-solder joint applied to a controlled-collapse chip joint was investigated and compared with the conventional solder, 63 Sn/37 Pb. A 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag solder with several mass% of gold added is examined in terms of tensile properties and microstructure. Although 63 Sn/37 Pb with more than 3 mass% of gold has a poor ultimate elongation, 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag extends well. Regarding the microstructure, intermetallic compounds alloyed by 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag and gold are smaller than those of 63 Sn/37 Pb and gold. The influence of the thermal fatigue of microbonding is discussed. After the temperature cycling test, striations formed by the thermal fatigue are observed on the fractured surface. Their intervals are as fine as 0.04-0.2 μm. The crack-propagation rate of the solder joint is calculated according to the alternating intervals of the striations. In this way, the life of each solder joint is estimated. The thermal fatigue life of 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag solder is found to be about twice that of 63 Sn/37 Pb. The life estimated according to the striations is related to the strain calculated by the finite-element method (FEM) to obtain an experimental equation estimating the life of the controlled-collapse chip joint of 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag. The 96.5 Sn/3.5 Ag solder is proven to have excellent characteristics for microbonding View full abstract»

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  • Mullite ceramic substrate for thin-film application

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 68 - 75 vol.1
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    The advantages of mullite ceramic for thin-film application are examined. Using homogeneous powder, a dense mullite substrate consisting of fine mullite grains was provided without the addition of a sintering aid. The properties obtained are superior to those of the mullite presented by M. Horiuchi et al. (1988) and a conventional alumina for application to packages and substrates: low dielectric constant (6.8), a thermal expansion coefficient (4.4×10-6/°C) close to that of silicon, high flexural strength (302 MPa), and ease of polishing due to low hardness (10 GPa). Thin-film processes were applied to the mullite substrate. Chromium, copper, and nickel layers were sputter-deposited, followed by gold electroplating. The adhesion strength seems to be affected by the surface smoothness of the substrate. Pulse-propagation velocities and characteristic impedances of a coplanar line patterned on the substrates were measured. Tungsten via metallization was found to be cofireable with the mullite. This is advantageous for providing a package with high wiring density View full abstract»

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  • Advanced military multilayer thick film hybrid design

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1086 - 1088 vol.2
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    The author examines design criteria and material issues connected with the production of high-quality nine-layer hybrids for GE Aerospace and their advanced IR sensors. Attention is given to density issues, via design, tiered bonding with thick film, and thick-film materials. These hybrids were manually routed and checked. Subsequent investigations into recent CAD (computer-aided design) technology showed that substantial savings could have been achieved in design time View full abstract»

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