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Operation of Radio Transmitters in Proximity to Flammable Atmospheres, IEE Colloquium on

Date 2 Mar 1993

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  • Radiowave propagation in hazardous areas

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 3/1 - 3/4
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    Radiowaves induce currents in metallic structures and may cause sparking if there is a gap in the structure. The power dissipated in the spark may be sufficient to ignite a flammable atmosphere if the radio wave is strong enough. The author discusses the calculation of the strengths of waves radiated by different types of transmitters. The formulae quoted are to be found in British Standard 6656 and in slightly different form in British Standard 6657. The following topics are covered: properties of radiowaves; transmissions at frequencies up to 30 MHz (vertical and horizontal polarisations); transmissions at frequencies above 30 MHz; microwave antennas; and near fields View full abstract»

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  • Radio frequency induced ignition hazards: the current relevant standards and the legal position

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 1/1 - 1/5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)  

    Protection against ignition and detonations initiated by RF radiation is considered. The author discusses progress towards realistic standards and the legal background. British Standard BS6656 and the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work Act are described View full abstract»

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  • Problems in design of ignition test cells for use with pulsed radar sources

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 5/1 - 5/4
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    The results of a detailed study of breakdown phenomena and flammable gas ignition in a fixed-gap ignition cell fed by a pulsed radar source are presented. It is reasoned that the large electrode gap widths that are necessary with hydrocarbon fuels lead to a situation where any spark that occurs is certain to cause ignition, and the probability of ignition is determined by the probability of occurrence of a spark. This is, in turn, largely determined by statistical time lag, which approaches infinity as the input power is reduced. It is concluded that a `breakflash' type of ignition cell may give more consistent results than a fixed-gap design, although the rate of occurrence of breaksparks in current designs is excessively low View full abstract»

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  • Derivation of safe field strength levels for RF initiated spark ignition

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 2/1 - 211
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    Unwanted induced currents due to electromagnetic radiation can cause sparks to occur and ignition of gases is possible. There is thus a potential incompatibility between radio transmitters and gas/petrochemical processing plant, an issue which has been addressed in detail in the UK over the last fifteen years. The author describes practical on-site measurements at the St. Fergus gas processing plant and research projects established to obtain further information on structure characteristics and also the ignition thresholds of flammable atmospheres when a typical structure was the source of power. The British Standard BS 6656 is briefly described View full abstract»

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  • IEE Colloquium on `Operation of Radio Transmitters in Proximity to Flammable Atmospheres' (Digest No.054)

    Publication Year: 1993
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    The following topics were dealt with: safety standards; safe field strength levels; radiowave propagation in hazardous areas; safe use of radio transmitters on road tankers; and ignition test cell design View full abstract»

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  • The safe use of radio transmitters on road tankers and other vehicles

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 4/1 - 4/7
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    The operators of tanker lorries carrying petroleum products want to have radio telephones fitted to the cabs of their vehicles. Members of the Institute of Petroleum's Electrical Engineering Committee, in their efforts to prepare a code of practice for the safe use of radio telephones in these vehicles, recognised that British Standard BS 6656:1986 gave guidance on the subject of RF ignition of flammable atmospheres. Results of an ERA Technology study are presented. The following topics are covered: guidelines for the identification of potential hazards; mobile radio transmitters; unintended radio antennas; conditions for the ignition of flammable atmospheres; calculations; results; and recommendations View full abstract»

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