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Nanotechnology, 2006. IEEE-NANO 2006. Sixth IEEE Conference on

Date 17-20 July 2006

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): C1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): ii
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  • [Commentary]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): iii
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  • [Commentary]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): iv
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  • Contributor Listings

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): v
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  • Contributor Listings

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): vi
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  • [Society related material]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): vii
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xi - xxvii
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  • Semiconductor Device Scaling: Physics, Transport, and the Role of Nanowires

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 415 - 418
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanoelectronics generally refers to nanometer scale devices, and to circuits and architectures which are composed of these devices. Continued scaling of the devices into the nanometer range leads to enhanced information processing systems. Generally, this scaling has arisen from three major sources, one of which is reduction of the physical gate length of individual transistors. Until recently, this has also allowed an increase in the clock speed of the chip, but power considerations have halted this to levels around 4 GHz in Si. Indeed, there are indications that scaling itself may be finished by the end of this decade. There are now pushes to seek alternative materials for nano-devices that may supplement the Si CMOS in a manner that allows both higher speeds and lower power. In this paper, I will cover some of the impending limitations, and discuss some alternative approaches that may signal continued evolution of integrated circuits beyond the end of the decade. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a theory of single molecule conduction

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 419 - 421
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss recent progress in our theoretical understanding of molecular electronics on three fronts: (a) at a formal level involving quantum transport in presence of strong correlation effects; (b) at a computational level for modeling heterogeneous integrated systems such as molecules on silicon, and (c) at a device level by exploring novel concepts such as conformational transistors and surface modulated transistors. View full abstract»

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  • InAs Nanowire Transistors Using Solution-Grown Nanowires with Acceptor Doping

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 422 - 424
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    InAs nanowire field effect transistors have been fabricated using solution-synthesized wires, with average diameters of 20 nm. Wires using either Zn and Cd dopants, both acceptors and both incorporated at relatively high doping densities, have been studied. The Zn-doped wires showed n-channel transistor characteristics, and were unipolar with relatively large on/off ratios. The Cd-doped wires were ambipolar, with on/off ratios below 10 at room temperature. This study expand the possible applications of InAs nanowire devices in high speed electronic circuits in contrast to the existing reports of only n type conductivity behavior of InAs nanowire devices. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Dopant Concentration on the Electrical Transport at Low Temperature in Silicon Nanowires

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 425 - 428
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    We demonstrate the correlation between the the doping atoms concentration and the Coulomb blockade phenomenon in silicon nanowires. At room and intermediate temperatures nanowires show a field effect, while at low temperature current oscillations due to Coulomb blockade dominate transport close to the conduction threshold. Detailed experimental results on samples with two different doping levels allowed Coulomb blockade to be related to the presence of the dopants. In the limit of a few dopants per cross section, as for low doping level (2.5×1017cm-3), the electrical behavior of the nanowire is similar to that of a one dimensional array of dots. In nanowires with a high doping level (1019cm-3), transport can be modeled on the basis of a two dimensional arrays of dots. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Surface Depletion Thickness of p-doped Silicon Nanowires Synthesized Using Metal Catalyzed CVD Process

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 429 - 432
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An in-depth understanding of the distribution and impact of doping in nanowires is crucial for the rational design of future nanowire based devices synthesized using bottom-up techniques. We used a very slow wet chemical etchant for progressive reduction of the diameters of boron-doped, metal-catalyzed silicon nanowires with diverse diameters and lengths. The low temperature process helped avert the dopant segregation which is common in high temperature processes such as oxidation for diameter reduction. We ensured identical surface conditions subsequent to diameter reduction with wet-chemical etching and, using DC current-voltage measurements, found the resistance to increase with decreasing diameter. As the diameters were shrunk from a larger diameter to ∼50 nm in diameter, they exhibited a strong non-linear increase of the resistance indicating complete depletion of the cross-section caused by surface charges. The dopant concentration of the nanowires was calculated to be 2.1×1018cm-3and the corresponding surface charge density was around 2.6×1012cm-2. View full abstract»

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  • Power Delivery for Nanoscale Processors with Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 433 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a quantitative analysis of the use of metallic, single wall carbon nanotube (mSWCNT) bundles in future power delivery applications for nanoscale processors. We consider several factors which have been neglected in recent works (i.e. improvements in materials, limitations of nanotube packing density, increase of mSWCNT resistance with applied bias). mSWCNTs will not be effective for replacement of short interconnect lengths (< 1μm). However, for interconnect lengths in excess of 10μm, mSWCNT bundles can exhibit a lower resistance than their metal counterparts for high density mSWCNT packing (wall-to-wall separation of less than 2nm). View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Simulation of Subwavelength Plasmonic Waveguides Using Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 437 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A full-vector finite difference method has been proposed to solve for the purely bounded optical modes for propagation in one and two dimensional subwavelength plasmonic waveguides. We have used The Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi method to directly calculate for the propagation properties of the dominant modes. The method has low computational complexity and can be applied to complex structures to solve for bounded modes, and it automatically separates dissipateive and propagating modes. View full abstract»

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  • NEMO 3-D and nanoHUB: Bridging Research and Education

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 441 - 444
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 3-D Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO 3-D) is an electronic structure simulation code for the analysis of quantum dots, quantum wells, nanowires, and impurities. NEMO 3-D uses the Valence Force Field (VFF) method for strain and the empirical tight binding (ETB) for the electronic structure calculations. Various ETB models are available, ranging from single s orbitals (single band effective mass), over sp3s*to sp3d5s*models, with and without explicit representation of spin. The code is highly optimized for operation on cluster computing systems. Simulations of systems of 64 million atoms (strain) and 21 million atoms have been demonstrated. This implies that every atom is accounted for in simulation volumes of (11Onm)3and (77nm)3, respectively. Such simulations require parallel execution on 64 itanium2 CPUs for around 12 hours. A simple effective mass calculation of an isolated quantum dot, in contrast, requires about 20 seconds on a single CPU. NEMO 3-D therefore offers the opportunity to engage both educators and advanced researchers, utilizing a single code. nanoHUB.org is the community web site hosted by the Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN) dedicated to bridge education, research, and development for the whole nanoscience and nanotechnology community. This paper reviews the mission of the NCN exemplified by the development and deployment of the NEMO 3-D tool. View full abstract»

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  • ZnO Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors: Ozone-Induced Threshold Voltage Shift and Multiple Nanowire Effects

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 445 - 448
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) employing single nanowires were fabricated, using a self-assembled superlattice (SAS) as the gate insulator. Both depletion-mode and enhancement-mode ZnO NW-FETs were fabricated and characterized. An electrostatic model is proposed to describe observed threshold voltage shift upon optimum ozone treatment. Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of depletion-mode ZnO NW-FETs verify this model, indicating the existence of body current through ZnO nanowires with low activation energy. In addition, NW-FETs that use multiple ZnO nanowires and a SiO2gate insulator were fabricated to achieve higher on-current without significant degradation in on-off current ratio, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold slopes. View full abstract»

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  • Single-crystalline ZnO nanowires grown on silicon wafers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 449 - 452
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    We report electrodeposition of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires on Si wafers. Similar wires grown on conductive SnO2/glass substrates show excellent electro-luminescence with visible and ultra-violet spectral contributions. For high doping levels in the n-type Si substrates high-quality nanowires can be grown. For low electron concentrations occurring in weakly n-type wafers or in p-type wafers, nanowire growth is inhibited. For B-doped p-type samples the growth process can be improved by applying external bias light or more cathodic electrode potentials. View full abstract»

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  • Ultraviolet photoresponse of ZnO tetrapod nanocrystal Schottky diodes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 453 - 456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fabrication of an ultraviolet photodiode employing a single ZnO tetrapod nanocrystal is reported. We have attached two tungsten leads and one platinum lead to three of the arms of the tetrapod. By measuring the transport properties between each pair of leads we show that the tungsten contacts are ohmic and the platinum contacts are rectifying. Photoresponse measurements were carried out with above and below bandgap illumination. We observe a much larger ultraviolet photoresponse for the rectifying Pt-ZnO-W junction than the linear W-ZnO-W junction. We conclude that the enhanced photoresponse of our rectifying junction results from a photoinduced reduction of the Schottky barrier height at the Pt-ZnO interface. View full abstract»

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  • A New Approach for Establishing Electrical Contacts to a Nanowire Array as Applied to Gas Sensing

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 457 - 460
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the design of a novel nanowire gas sensing device utilizing vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires grown on a gold catalyst layer through a direct thermal evaporation process at 550 °C. Electrical contact to the top of the nanowire assembly was established through a novel approach of electrostatic attachment of conductive nanoparticles exclusively to the tip of the nanowires, non-destructively. A gas-sensing device was constructed using this arrangement and found to be sensitive to methanol and nitrous oxide at 325 °C. View full abstract»

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  • Chemically Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Ultra-Low-Power Alcohol Vapor Detection

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 461 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have successfully chemically functionalized the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with COOH group by the method of oxidation and used AC electrophoresis to formed these bundles MWCNTs between Au electrodes on the Si substrate. We then demonstrated that these resistive elements are capable of detecting alcohol vapor using an ultra-low input power of only ∼0.01μW. The sensors exhibit fast, repeatable, highly sensitive, and reversible response. Our results show that the resistances of the sensors vary linearly with alcohol vapor concentration from 5ppth to 100ppth (ppth = part per thousand). We can also easily reverse the initial resistance of the sensors by annealing them in real time at 100-250μA current within 1-6 minutes. We have experimental proof that the functionalized MWCNTs have a much higher sensitivity towards the alcohol vapor than the bare MWCNTs. Based on our experimental results, we prove that MWCNTs sensors, especially for those with proper functionalized groups, are sensitive to a wide range of alcohol vapor and potentially other volatile organic compounds, and are very attractive for commercialization due to their extreme low-power requirements for activation. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for a Strain-based Magnetometer

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 465 - 468
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    A design for a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) magnetometer will be presented. The operating principle exploits the sensitivity of SWCNT electrical properties to strain. The sensor design consists of a free-standing mat of SWCNTs that is mechanically coupled to a magnetically responsive, high aspect-ratio Fe component. During operation, torque on the Fe needle will transduce ambient magnetic field strength into an electronic signal. Preliminary results of precursor SWCNT material will be presented, including magnetic field- and temperature-dependence of electron transport measurements, and implications for magnetometer operation will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Hole-Based Memory Device Fabricated from Nano ITO Embedded High-k Thin Films

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 469 - 472
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    A new type of hole-based memory device composed of a novel indium tin oxide embedded zirconium-doped hafnium oxide high-k film has been fabricated and characterized. It has strong hole retention. When indium tin oxide is replaced with nanocrystalline silicons, it becomes an electron-based memory device. The new material can be used in high-performance nonvolatile memory devices. In principle, CMOS type nonvolatile memories can be fabricated using these two types of devices. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Hybrid PLL Frequency Synthesizer Using Single Electron and MOS Transistors

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 473 - 476
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid phase-locked loop (PLL) using single electron transistor (SET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor. A novel hybrid voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and hybrid logic gates using SET and MOS transistors are used to construct the hybrid PLL. The hybrid VCO has several advantages: a wide frequency tuning range, low power dissipation and large load capability. We study the performances of the hybrid PLL circuit by HSPICE simulator. Simulation results demonstrate that the hybrid circuit could well operate as a PLL at room temperature. The power dissipation of the PLL circuit is lower than 10uW. View full abstract»

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  • Alcohol Sensing using Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 477 - 479
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have measured the 2 probe resistance of an individual Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) device and investigated the change in the resistance due to the exposure to various organic vapors. These results are reversible and reproducible over many cycles of exposure of organic vapors. View full abstract»

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