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Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO). 2005 IEEE International Conference on

Date July 5, 2005

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  • Parylene BioMEMS

    Page(s): 26 - 29
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  • 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics

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  • [Copyright notice]

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  • Welcome message

    Page(s): iii
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  • IEEE ROBIO 2005 Conference Organization

    Page(s): iv - v
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  • Conference Venue Information

    Page(s): vi - xv
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  • Program at a glance

    Page(s): xvi - xx
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): xxi - xxviii
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  • Control of complex bio-molecular system

    Page(s): xxix
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  • Multi-locomotion robot-energy based motion control for dexterous brachiation

    Page(s): xxx
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  • Development of advanced robots for disaster response

    Page(s): xxxi
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  • Nano manipulation and assembly using AFM

    Page(s): xxxii
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  • Virtual human and its application in medicine

    Page(s): xxxiii
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  • Automatic Bio-MEMS platforms for fast disease diagnosis

    Page(s): xxxiv
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  • Microscale biomechanics: Studies of Neurogenesis and Stem Cell Differentiation under Micromechanical Influences

    Page(s): xxxvi
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    Two types of stem cells, one from neonatal rat brains and the other from hydra body columns, are being studied with quantified mechanical stimulations. MEMS polysilicon clamp and ratchet microstructure has been designed to exert mechanical tension along radial glial processes between groups of neural stem cells to study the effect of tension on cerebral cortex neurogenesis. Preliminary studies show that embryonic brain tissue survives under tension for at least six days. Neurospheres have been successfully cultured on poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) substrate for eight days and exhibit radial extensions which appear to support neuronal migration. Stretching the PDMS using the clamp and ratchet would produce tension in these radial extensions which may modulate neuronal migration, a key process in cerebral cortex development. To study the responses of hydra stem cells to mechanical stimuli, a 6-foot water column is constructed to observe hydra regeneration, and thus stem cell differentiation, under various levels of static pressure. Several dissected hydras were injected into a PDMS trap and then lowered into the water column at specific depths. There appears a connection between the level of environmental pressure, available resources, and the ability of the hydra to regenerate. The preliminary results from these two diverse types of stem cells support the hypothesis that mechanical stimulations are important factors that influence stem cell fates View full abstract»

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  • Parylene BioMEMS

    Page(s): xxxvii
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    This paper describes parylene as an emerging bioMEMS material. Parylene has the unique feature of room-temperature, pinhole-free conformal CVD deposition. It is chemically inert and biocompatible. More interestingly, it is found that parylene thin film usually possesses a tensile intrinsic stress, controlled by the last thermal steps. These features allow free-standing parylene MEMS structures in many designs. Parylene MEMS is also a suitable technology for post-CMOS integration. As a result, multi-layer parylene MEMS technology has been developed, especially for bioMEMS applications. This paper also gives examples of integrated parylene microfluidics and HPLC on-a-chip View full abstract»

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  • Global investment activities in robotics, nanotechnology and energy

    Page(s): xxxviii
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    Summary form only given. Public and private investment in key emerging technologies continues to be strong globally even in the midst of modest economic growth expectations and concerns about the growing U.S. budget deficit. Political concerns over the need to develop alternative energy sources and the war in Iraq have ensured public funding would be available. Such funding, especially for technologies that demand large amount of blue-sky and continued R&D spending, helps to reduce investment risk for the private sector. This sharing the burden of commercializing new technologies is vital in order for the private sector to continue to attempt to develop commercial applications and new growth markets. It is expected that both robotics and energy sectors would continue to growth and serve as two of the key markets in the 21st century. In order for the above to experience this expected growth, it is necessary for researchers to develop breakthroughs in micro/MEMS and nanotechnology - i.e. "small tech." Public funding for small tech has experienced tremendous increases over the past decade as not only major industrialized countries have developed extensive small tech programs but even emerging markets have attempted to stake a competitive claim in key niche areas. Small tech is believed to be the key enabler to assist in the sudden, exponential expansion in the robotics and energy industries, and a great deal of R&D and commercialization in small tech is directly related to both. The US and Japan have provided the bulk of funding for all of the above with a number of countries playing key supporting roles. Though a great deal of U.S. public research and development is currently focused on military applications, a great deal of innovation would eventually find its way to the private sector and be commercialized. In Japan, much public funding is tied to private sector commercialization efforts and companies have devoted more R&D spending than their American- - counterparts. For example, Japan is the global leader in public and private sector investment in nanotechnology, leads in the commercialization of robotics and the Japanese automobile industry leads the world in the manufacture and sales of hybrid next generation automobiles which utilize fuel cells. This presentation would review public sector global funding initiatives, recent trends in private sector investments and venture company activity in regard to micro/nanotechnology, robotics and energy View full abstract»

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  • Control of complex bio-molecular systems

    Page(s): 1 - 3
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    Nature has evolved extremely intelligent and complex adaptive systems. For instance, a cell fuses genetic processes with nanoscale sensors and actuators to result in one of the most efficient and autonomous molecular factories. These systems operate by integrating multiple levels of system architecture. Sensing, information processing, as well as cellular action are all fused at the local level. At each level of the system architecture, higher-order functionalities or emergent properties are often derived. These complexities cannot be simply extrapolated from its individual components and are far beyond our full understanding. This leads us towards cell mimetic approaches requiring fusion of biotechnology, nanotechnology, and informatics, for controlling and interrogating these complex biological systems. We have demonstrated that properly designed time-varying stimulations can self-organize and adjust the functionalities across multiple length scales to efficiently reach the desired control stare. This may yield new insight into unlocking and acquiring novel control modalities of the underlying mechanisms that drive the natural processes of life View full abstract»

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  • Multi-locomotion robot - energy-based motion control for dexterous brachiation -

    Page(s): 4 - 9
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    This paper introduces a multi-locomotion robot which has multiple types of locomotion. The robot is developed to achieve a bipedal walk, a quadrupedal walk and a brachiation, mimicking locomotion ways of a gorilla. It therefore has higher mobility by selecting a proper locomotion type according to its environment and purpose. In this paper we focus on brachiation mode and propose a control algorithm to realize stable and efficient continuous brachiation while the ultimate purpose of this study is to develop a unified control architecture which realize multiple types of dexterous locomotion like an animal as well as motion stability and efficiency. Swing control of brachiation according to the total energy of the system is one of key issues in order to realize the continuous brachiation, because the brachiation can be modeled as a pendulum-like motion and the amplitude of the oscillation determines whether the robot can grasp the target ladder or not. We propose an energy-based control algorithm and install it into the swing action controller. Experimental results show that the robot can successfully achieve smooth and continuous brachiation View full abstract»

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  • Design of humanoid robot for human-robot interaction - Waseda Robots: Wendy and Wamoeba -

    Page(s): 16 - 19
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    The development of humanoid robots that can support human labor and assist human daily activities by several combined communication channels, such as physical interaction and informational interaction, is expected to be a measure against labor shortages in aging societies. Such robots are distinctively called "human symbiotic robots". In designing of the human symbiotic robots, capabilities of ensuring safety and friendliness while interacting with human must be given top priority. Under this concept, the Humanoid Robot Project at the Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University has developed Wendy and Wamoeba as prototypes of human symbiotic robots. Wendy is an anthropomorphic type robot. Since human symbiotic robots must work in human's living space and manipulate things which are designed suitably for human usage, their design should be similar human body shape. On the other hand, Wamoeba is a trial model for the research which investigates for the possibility of the emergence of mind in the artificial mechanical system based on the model of the emergence process of human mind which should be the ultimate function for friendly communication View full abstract»

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  • An immune model and its application to a mobile robot simulator

    Page(s): 30 - 34
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    Immune computation is burgeoning bioinformatics technique inspired from the natural immune system and can solve the information security problems such as antivirus and fault detection. And the immune model is a crucial problem of the artificial immune system. In this paper, an immune model was proposed for the application of a mobile robot simulator, which was infected by some worms, such the love worm and the happy-time worm. The immune model was comprised of three tiers, including the inherent immune tier, the adaptive immune tier and the parallel computing tier. This immune model was built on the theories of the natural immune system and had many excellent features, such as adaptability, immunity, memory, learning, and robustness. And the application example of the immune model in the mobile robot simulator showed, the artificial immune system can detect, recognize, learn and eliminate computer viruses, and can detect and repair faults such as software bugs, and so the immune computation is an excellent approach for antivirus security. Moreover, the application fields and prospect of the immune computation would be rich and successful in the near future View full abstract»

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  • Design of a snake-like robot controller with cyclic inhibitory CPG model

    Page(s): 35 - 40
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    Snake-like robots that behaves biological snakes' characteristics have possibility to make them supremely adapted for environment. In this paper, we firstly design a snake-like robot controller with cyclic inhibitory CPG model, and then analyze the stability of single neuron, CPG model and the neuron oscillator network (NON). By implementing this control architecture to a simulator with consideration of mechanical dynamics of a real snake-like robot named "Perambulator-I", we present preliminary policies about parameter setting of the CPG controller for serpentine locomotion. Moreover, we show that "Perambulator-I" can successfully exhibit serpentine locomotion by using controller output of the proposed architecture. This paper provides a realistic approach to design an artificial CPG controller View full abstract»

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