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Autonomic and Autonomous Systems, 2006. ICAS '06. 2006 International Conference on

Date 19-21 July 2006

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  • International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems - Cover

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  • International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems - Title

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  • International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems - Copyright

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  • International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems - Table of contents

    Page(s): v - xi
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  • ICAS Committees

    Page(s): xii - xix
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  • Preface

    Page(s): xx - xxiii
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  • Dynamic Adaptive Navigation via MAIS Reflective Framework

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The wide diffusion of mobile devices and the increasing availability of wireless networks claim applications able to adapt their behaviour with respect to the running context. This paper presents dynamic adaptive navigation (DAN), a novel approach that may be exploited to build adaptive information systems. DAN provides the user with different navigation modalities. The observation of QoS features concerning the users, the devices, and the network drive the selection of the actual navigation modality that is intended as the best available. The navigation modalities are modelled via graphs describing the synthesis/expansion process that must be performed on the information. Applications to be adaptive, either implicitly or explicitly, rely on reflection. Since DAN may be used to build adaptive applications, it should rely on reflective mechanisms too. DAN exploits the ones provided by the MAIS (multichannel adaptive information system) architecture. Indeed, MAIS provides via reflective classes the visibility of the QoS-related aspects of the underlying system objects, being them devices or users. Finally, to verify the usefulness of the ideas, DAN approach has been chosen to develop a new version of PDBudget, a system that supports the academic administration in analysing and evaluating the didactic workload for each lecturer at the University of Milano-Bicocca View full abstract»

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  • Reflective Hierarchical State-Machines for Self-Adaptable Distributed Transaction Coordination

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    Current transaction processing systems often lack the desired property to adapt their behavior to the ever-changing environment and the run-time context. Concerning a particular application domain, there could be various extended transaction coordination models, each focusing on solving specific problems. However, they are usually not targeted to manage the complicated situations with a mixture of these problems. Providing an overall transaction model for such mixture of problems is impractical, if not impossible. Our solution to this challenging issue is to build a self-adaptable transaction coordination framework. Rather than providing yet another transaction model, this framework hosts different transaction coordination protocols in the existing transaction patterns, and makes them adaptable according to the changing application context. Transaction coordination systems can choose their desired transaction patterns at the beginning of transactions, or switch their patterns at run-time if necessary. To make this possible, a formal hierarchical state-machine is incorporated into the framework, and reflection method is adopted. Experimentation of this framework is based on J2EE activity services. Mobile transaction coordination scenario is used throughout the paper as an illustration of how the framework may be applied practically View full abstract»

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  • Providing for change through Adaptive Object Models and Autonomous Computing techniques

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    This paper explores how autonomic behaviour might be supported by software that is constructed using adaptive object modelling (AOM). AOMs provide a meta-layer architecture through which controlled (i.e. domain meaningful and correct) transformations of base-level computation can be achieved. Our work is derived from a model driven approach to systems construction, in which architectural modelling artefacts of a development process are used directly to construct a system AOM. Modification of modelling is explicitly mapped to AOM adjustment, and thus to system modification. We propose an extension to this approach to capture dynamic and autonomic concerns. We explore how resulting systems models might readily accommodate unforeseen changes in the environment and react appropriately without the need for programmer intervention View full abstract»

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  • Agreement-aware Semantic Management of Services

    Page(s): 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automation of versatile process management will aid greater efficiency and lower costs. It is widely expected that highly structured agreements should be executed and enforced automatically. In the progress of building an executable license agreement framework, we have noticed that diverse agreement processing and automation have commonalities leading us to propose a generic architecture that can provide various automated agreement services that leverage ontology, rule and agent technologies View full abstract»

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  • Policy-Driven Adaptation of Protocol Stacks

    Page(s): 5
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    Today's mobile applications need to execute in a wide range of heterogeneous devices that operate in different conditions. In this context, dynamic adaptation of the underlying communication support is fundamental to achieve adequate performance. We address the problem of supporting dynamic adaptation of communication protocol stacks through a policy-oriented approach, which promotes the separation of adaptation from protocol logic. In this paper, we provide an approach overview, and focus on the policy language and modeling primitives that allow to capture the adaptation requirements identified from the experience with Appia framework View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Resource Demand in Dynamic Utility Computing Environments

    Page(s): 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We target the problem of predicting resource usage in situations where the modeling data is scarce, non-stationary, or expensive to obtain. This scenario occurs frequently in computing systems and networks, mostly due to the high dynamicity of the underlying processes. Utility computing environments are an important example for such a scenario, as their frequent reconfiguration reduces the amount of training data available for modeling. We propose an approach based on a genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic which allows for creation of robust prediction models even with scarce training data. The method is evaluated on demand usage traces collected from 41 servers in a business data center. The results show in the setting of scarce training data amount our method has a significantly higher prediction accuracy compared to other non-linear techniques such as decision trees or support vector machines View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive provisioning using virtual machines and autonomous role-based management

    Page(s): 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A modern server system must deliver a complex set of obligations towards its users. We study the concept of roles as autonomous encapsulations of a set of promises. Using visualization and configuration management, every defined role for a real-life computer system can be realized as a self managing agent that is aware of other, related roles within the same broader context. A prototype implementation that provides web hotel services for customers is presented and discussed View full abstract»

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  • Linearly Ordered Plugins through Self-Organization

    Page(s): 8
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    Nowadays, plugin-based applications are quite common. Eclipse is probably the most popular example of such an application. By means of plugins, end-users can add or remove functionality even at runtime. Besides the kernel, plugin-based applications can be kept very small and nearly everything can be designed as a plugin. However, if plugins are added at runtime, their ordering is difficult to organize. This can be observed for graphical user interface representations of plugins, such as menu or list items for example. In particular, the kernel may not refer to a single concrete plugin, since it has to be independent of concrete plugins - according to the plugin concept. Therefore, self-organization is proposed in the present paper as a solution to structure plugin-based applications. A pattern for linearly ordered plugins is presented. The end-user still retains the possibility to reorder the plugins manually according to his preferences. A sample application of the presented pattern in the context of graphical user interfaces is described View full abstract»

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  • Quality of Adaptation

    Page(s): 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to support reusable and extendable solutions to self-adaptation, state of the art within adaptive systems include a diversity of architectures and mechanisms targeting different application types, technologies, context and concerns. Current approaches do not allow reasoning about the mechanisms and strategies themselves during startup-time or run-time. Consequently, the configuration or tuning of the adaptation system itself, must be done manually by a user or an administrator, or hard coded at design-time, making it harder to reuse. In this position paper, we propose considering adaptation as a service. In order to allow reasoning about and comparing such services, we define quality of adaptation (QoA) to be the qualitative properties of an adaptation service. We argue that this approach facilitates the development of adaptation mechanisms and control that are, like the system they adapt, reusable and adaptable, and open to evolution View full abstract»

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  • Workload Models for Autonomic Database Management Systems

    Page(s): 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Autonomic computing is a promising approach to the problem of effectively managing large complex software systems such as database management systems (DBMSs). In order to be self-managing, an autonomic DBMS (ADBMS) must understand key aspects of its workload, including composition, frequency patterns, intensity and resource requirements. It must therefore use and maintain different characterizations, or models, of the workload to support its various kinds of decision-making. Our research into various aspects of ADBMSs has led us to develop a number of different workload models. In this paper, we examine the importance of workload models to ADBMSs. We discuss the types of workload models needed by ADBMSs and describe examples from our research. We then outline the requirements for an infrastructure to develop and maintain the workload models needed by an ADBMS View full abstract»

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  • Simpler Analysis of Serial Transactions Using Reverse Transactions

    Page(s): 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present in this article a method of validation for "serial transaction". The serial transaction model has been proposed in order to validate a concrete real-time application. This model is typically a task reading serial information (RS232, CAN, ...): several instances are identical and read a unitary part of a serial packet, these tasks have the same WCET, offset shifting, priority and relative deadline. In addition, the last task of a transaction has to deal with the whole packet, and is typically longer, but has a longer relative deadline, and a lower priority. The method of validation that we present here uses the concept of reverse transaction deduced from the serial transaction to analyse View full abstract»

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  • A Part Release considering Tool Scheduling and Dynamic Tool Allocation in Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    Page(s): 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to adapt to rapid changes of manufacturing environment, a trend in flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) is to compose identical versatile machines and to use dynamic tool allocation strategy, sharing tools between machines with fast tool delivery system. Unlike a conventional FMS where parts are fed to the machines with the required tools, tools are acquired from other machines using a tool delivery system and parts can be finished on the same machine in these FMS. Therefore it is more important problem to plan tool flow using tool delivery system in these FMS rather than part flow in conventional FMS. In this paper, in FMS under dynamic tool allocation strategy, a method of part release considering tool scheduling at the stage of part release is proposed. In order to prove the efficiency of the proposed part release it is compared with other part release through simulation experiments. Performance measures in these experiments are the throughput and the number of tardy parts View full abstract»

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  • Specification with Java IDL for Correctness and Maintainability of Distributed Software System

    Page(s): 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (90 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a specification language named Spec and its processor using JLEX and CUP are suggested to specify the correctness property of a distributed concurrent software system. The correctness property to be specified deals with such properties as partial correctness, invariant, mutually exclusive access to a critical section, data replication, and accessibility. The specification about data replication and accessibility are for describing the liveness property for the fault tolerance of a distributed application, while the specification about partial correctness, invariant, and mutual exclusiveness are for describing the safety property. The Spec processor is supposed to extract the constructs related to Java IDL and then invoke the Java runtime command, idlj, which in turn generates stub and skeleton source files accompanied with some infrastructure code for connecting to the ORB. Making use of the specification along with Java IDL syntax, users can specify the desired behavior of a target system in the context of correctness property. Using the suggested specification technique, developers can be helped to enhance the understandability and maintainability of the final system by emphasizing the front-end of software development lifecycle View full abstract»

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  • Control System Framework for Autonomous Robots Based on Extended State Machines

    Page(s): 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new framework optimized for the design, implementation, and testing of control systems for autonomous robots. It is based on a new visual specification language which specifies both control and data flow, and which is suited to be interpreted in real-time. The framework is divided into a comprehensive development and a lightweight run-time environment. The latter is fully integrated with a real-time operating system and permits to reconfigure a control system without compilation at run time. Moreover, communication in distributed systems is supported. An earlier version of the framework has been successfully applied in an autonomous helicopter and an autonomous ground vehicle project View full abstract»

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  • On the conception of an autonomous and modular robot based on an Event Driven OSEK System with deterministic real-time behavior

    Page(s): 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we are interested in the design of an autonomous and modular self-reconfigurable robot having self-assembly capability and deterministic behavior. The ability of a modular robot to meet its mission strongly depends on the artificial intelligence software and on the underlying hardware and software architecture. The artificial intelligence software of a robot is mapped into several elementary tasks with different real-time constraints. We propose in this paper a real-time analysis taking into account kernel overheads for the validation of the real-time behavior of an artificial intelligence software. We study the OSEK operating system that requires few hardware resources and is cost effective. The overheads are due to the context switching mechanism which activates, terminates, and reschedules tasks, and to the periodic timer used to create the time base which is necessary for the periodic tasks model. We show how to take into account those overheads in the feasibility conditions. We compare the theoretical worst case response time obtained with kernel overheads to the response time obtained on a task set, on a real robot, based on the event driven OSEK implementation. We show that the kernel overheads cannot be neglected and that the theoretical results are valid and can be used to ensure a deterministic behavior of the robot View full abstract»

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  • Blueprint for an Autonomic Service Architecture

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    Service providers offer an array of services and applications that are media-rich, personalized, and context-aware. In this environment, new services and applications are introduced, provisioned, operated, maintained, and retired at a pace that tracks changing customer requirements and demands. In order to be cost-effective, these services and applications need to be delivered over an all-IP infrastructure, which is autonomically managed to ensure their delivery at a satisfactory level for subscribed customers. In this paper, we propose a blueprint for a generic autonomic service architecture (ASA) to address these challenges View full abstract»

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  • Towards Autonomic Distribution of Existing Object Oriented Programs

    Page(s): 17
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    By harnessing computational power of distributed heterogeneous resources, it is possible to build a large scale integrated system so that a centralized program is partitioned and distributed to those resources in a way that results in both efficient execution of the program and maximized resource utilization. However, building such a system is a staggering challenge because of the associated complexities and required user intervention. This paper proposes an autonomic distributed architecture that statically analyzes the existing Java application, partitions it to self-managed components that handles the complexities related to distribution and coordination without user involvement. An efficient static analysis mechanism is implemented that identifies run time program instances and their dependencies in terms of a graph. It is observed that such a view of the program is essential towards self optimization and self management View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Estimation and Control of a Z-axis MEMS Gyroscope with Time-varying Rotation Rates

    Page(s): 18
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    This paper presents a new adaptive control algorithm to control the sense axis of a Z-axis MEMS gyroscope. A force-to-rebalance mode of operation is applied to the sense axis. Under this mode, the output amplitude of sense axis is continuously monitored and driven to zero by the controller while an input rotation rate is measured. Adaptive laws are developed to estimate the rotation rate and a quadrature error term caused by mechanical imperfection. In the paper, we suppose the rotation rate of the gyroscope is an unknown time-varying piecewise continuous parameter, rather than a constant as in current literature. A Lyapunov approach is applied to obtain both control and adaptive laws View full abstract»

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  • Derandomization of Wireless Channel Access using Automata in Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 19
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    Low cost radio transceivers have enabled the deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) using inexpensive and energy constrained nodes. Real time monitoring and control systems using WSNs often seek to maintain a given, but possibly varying spatial and/or temporal, sensing resolution. This control typically consists of both node participation and communication channel access (MAC). This paper proposes integrating both functions into a simple automaton achieving three benefits. First, control of the desired number of transmitting sensors in a given time period is maintained with small variance around the desired mean. Second, channel efficiency (60%) exceeds slotted-ALOHA without explicit synchronization of or idle listening by nodes. Third, the technique implicitly limits the channel load at the maximum supported level with no increase in collisions, and no additional overhead when the desired number of transmitting sensors exceeds the supported capacity View full abstract»

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