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Circuits and Systems, 1993., Proceedings of the 36th Midwest Symposium on

Date 16-18 Aug. 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 391
  • Diagnosability of discrete event systems and its applications to circuit testing

    Page(s): 344 - 347 vol.1
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    As man-made systems become more and more complex, diagnostics of component failures is no longer an easy task that can be performed based on experience and intuition. Therefore, it is important to develop a systematic approach to diagnostic problems. Diagnostics can be done either on-line or off-line. By on-line diagnostics, we mean diagnostics performed while the system to be diagnosed is in normal operation. On the other hand, in off-line diagnostics, the system is not in normal operation. We mainly study off-line diagnostics in this paper. We also introduce the concept of diagnosability and study its properties, all in the framework of discrete event systems. This study is motivated by diagnostic problems in the automotive industry and we emphasize its applications.<> View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings of 36th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Explicit formulas for element values of the lowpass, highpass and bandpass ladders with Butterworth or Chebyshev response

    Page(s): 645 - 648 vol.1
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    The paper presents explicit formulas for the element values of an LC-ladder in terms of the coefficients of its impedance function known to be realizable as a resistively terminated lossless lowpass, highpass or bandpass LC-ladder. The formulas for the lowpass LC-ladders are an improvement over Bader's formulas in that they are much the simplest with increased computational accuracy and complexity by avoiding the computation of the n th-order determinants. The extension of these formulas to the LC-ladders with other terminations are also discussed. The paper also demonstrates the application of these formulas to the design of a broadband matching equalizer having the Butterworth response, using an illustrative example View full abstract»

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  • Optimal grayscale morphological filters under the LMS algorithm

    Page(s): 129 - 133 vol.1
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    This paper presents a method for determining optimal grayscale function processing (FP) morphological filters such as close-opening (GO) and open-closing (OC). The proposed method utilizes the matrix representation of both CO and OC with the block basis matrix. With this representation, CO and OC are accomplished by local matrix operations rather than cascade operations. The LMS and back-propagation algorithms are utilized for obtaining the optimal block basis matrix for CO and OC. Some results of optimal morphological filters applied to 2D images are presented View full abstract»

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  • Multiple FM-video signal transmission through optical fiber for use in security

    Page(s): 1263 - 1267 vol.2
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    Described is a dual FM video signal transmission system with an optical fiber for use in monitoring pictures for security purpose. Each video signal from each video camera is modulated by the FM scheme actualized by using a VCO operating at 30 MHz or 50 MHz, and the modulated RF video signal is sent to the optical fiber through the electrical-to-optical converter consisting of an LED at 850 nm. The optical FM video signal is received by using the optical-to-electrical converter. Each received FM video signal is demodulated by using a PLL to reproduce the video signal. The camera mount attitude for one of a pair of video cameras can be adjusted by the optical control signal issued from the monitoring site View full abstract»

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  • Detection of defective carrier trolleys utilizing a PLC realizing a sequential finite state machine for pattern recognition

    Page(s): 48 - 51 vol.1
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    Today in major U.S. automotive manufacturing facilities, conveyors are the primary means by which material is transported throughout the manufacturing facility. In the final automobile assembly facilities of major U.S. automotive companies, extensive use of a conveyor system is the primary means by which heavy components such as chassis, engines and automobile bodies are moved throughout the facility. Any downtime associated with these systems can result in a severe financial impact on the manufacturing operation. The critical component that has lead to many hours of downtime has been the carrier trolley wheels. A considerable amount of expense and effort can go into repairing the carrier while in the processing system. This paper explains efforts to design a system that will detect defective trolley wheels operating in the conveyor system. The article presents a practical application of applying advanced software development techniques to the generation of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) program utilizing ladder logic software View full abstract»

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  • Stability of dynamical systems determined by differential inequalities with applications to nonlinear circuits

    Page(s): 637 - 640 vol.1
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    We develop a Lyapunov stability theory for finite dimensional continuous-time dynamical systems described by a system of first order ordinary differential inequalities. We utilize this theory to establish sufficient robust stability criteria for a large class of finite dimensional, continuous-time dynamical systems described by systems of ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology advanced herein by means of a specific example which has been considered in the literature. In terms of computational complexity and conservatism of stability criteria, the present results frequently offer improvements over existing results View full abstract»

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  • IIR sub-band adaptive filtering

    Page(s): 125 - 128 vol.1
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    Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks for multirate subband adaptive filtering are proposed. An allpass based realization of IIR filter banks is developed. It is shown that power symmetric filter banks form a wavelet basis for the signal space. An adaptive scheme incorporating the IIR filter banks is presented and an example follows View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of lossless compression techniques

    Page(s): 1268 - 1270 vol.2
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    Data compression deals with representing information in a succinct way. In view that the major lossless or error-free compression methods like Huffman, arithmetic and Lempel-Ziv coding do not achieve great compression ratios, it is necessary to preprocess the images in order to reduce the amount of correlation among neighboring pixels, thereby the compression ratio is improved. These preprocessing methods could achieve reduction of image entropy in the spatial domain, or in the spatial frequency domain. The performance of some lossless compression techniques in combination with preprocessing methods is examined View full abstract»

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  • Selective color adjustment using a neural network as a color classifier

    Page(s): 1460 - 1463 vol.2
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    One of the subtle problems in color image processing is the difficulty of adjusting specific color tones in the image without affecting all other colors. The usual method is to adjust the primaries so as to produce as realistic as possible skin tones, and at the same time balance the rest of the colors close to their natural appearances. The reality, however, is that a balance of all color tones to their natural appearances by just adjusting the three primaries is not always a possible task. An alternative approach is to selectively adjust specific color tones without altering the color balance in the rest of the image. Such a scheme can be referred to as selective color tone adjustment. It is also possible to selectively sharpen or blur a specific color by selective color filtering. In this paper we present a scheme for color classification and apply it to selective color tone adjustment View full abstract»

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  • Complexity analysis of range image segmentation on MasPar MP-1

    Page(s): 903 - 906 vol.2
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    Many low level vision tasks that are computationally intensive are easily parallelizable. The lack of parallel processing systems, or their prohibitive costs, have prevented the move of vision processing algorithms from single processor systems to multiprocessor systems. With the recent spurt of parallel processing hardware, there is a need to investigate the feasibility of using such machines for some vision algorithms. Speedup is an important factor in determining the feasibility of migration from single processor systems to parallel processors. In this work, we investigate a particular segmentation algorithm and present theoretical speedup results. Our formula can work out numerical speedups by simply plugging in the parameter values View full abstract»

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  • AWE macromodels for nonlinear circuits

    Page(s): 633 - 636 vol.1
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    Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) is an efficient and general technique for simulating linear(ized) circuits. This paper presents a strategy for macromodelling nonlinear circuits with AWE. These multi-region AWE macromodels represent an extension of piecewise linear models, with the addition of internal states. Each region represents an AWE approximation to a linearization (at some bias point) of the nonlinear circuit of interest. In addition a technique is presented for initializing the internal states for model transitions from one linearization to another during a transient simulation View full abstract»

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  • Parametric delay and area models for adders

    Page(s): 863 - 870 vol.2
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    This paper derives delay and area estimates for the four major adder types: ripple carry, carry skip, carry select, and carry lookahead. The models take into consideration gate area variation and gate delay variation as a function of fan-in for various size AND and OR gates. In addition, layout considerations are also modeled. Equations for the time to the final sum and carry bit are derived for all the adders. In addition, equations for the area of the various adders are derived. Naive (or simple) models that do not take into account varying gate delays and area are provided for comparison. In conclusion, the models are applied to 16 bit adders for comparison and some suggestions are made for extending the models View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of circuits with lossy transmission lines via approximated state-space models

    Page(s): 72 - 76 vol.1
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    In this work a new method for the analysis of circuits interconnected with lossy transmission lines, is presented. At first a lumped model is obtained by adopting suitable approximation techniques. Then classical model order reduction algorithms are applied to obtain a low order model of the circuit, suitable for computing a time domain response to arbitrary input signals. An example is reported, showing the suitability of the proposed approach View full abstract»

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  • Multisensor SIMD architecture for data fusion target tracking using the 21020 DSP family

    Page(s): 1002 - 1005 vol.2
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    Because of the evolution of Digital Signal Processing chips, a new Signal Computing chip, the Analog Devices 21020, was selected as the processor for nodes in a SIMD architecture which solves a data fusion target tracking problem. The solution is obtained by altering the gains of the sensors via feedback View full abstract»

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  • A routing algorithm for Multihop Packet Radio Networks with uni and bi-directional links

    Page(s): 300 - 303 vol.1
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    Multihop Packet Radio Networks require routing algorithms which are distributed in nature and have the ability to timely detect changes in the network topology. These changes are mostly changes in connectivity caused by link or node failures and by the relative motion of the nodes. This paper describes and analyzes an adaptive decentralized routing algorithm for Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum Packet Radio Networks. Unlike most of the algorithms found in the open literature the one proposed here can deal with networks having both uni- and bi-directional radio links. A detailed software simulation model has been built to investigate the performance of the algorithm. Examples are shown to illustrate the methodology View full abstract»

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  • An optical technique for the measurement of 2-D texture of roller bearing surfaces

    Page(s): 1464 - 1466 vol.2
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    An optical method was developed for the assessment of surface texture of tapered roller bearings. This technique was based on an analysis of the bi-directional scattering pattern of a surface which was illuminated by a coherent light source. The scattering pattern was captured by a CCD camera and then digitized by a frame grabber board on a PC-AT. The Bi-directional Reflective Distribution Function (BRDF) was obtained to derive the zero and second moments of the distribution function. These moments were then correlated to the RMS roughness and slope of the surface profile which was obtained from a stylus instrument. Good correlations were established for these parameters which indicates there exists a relationship between the BRDF of the surface and its surface profile statistics. This method offers a convenient way for the inspection of 2-D surfaces in the range of 0.2 μm to 0.8 μm RMS roughness View full abstract»

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  • An intelligent optical sensor realization

    Page(s): 1284 - 1287 vol.2
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    An analog VLSI realization of a multi-layer optically coupled neural network is described in this paper. The network has an optical array constructed with 10×10 photosensitive elements (photoreceptors) as the input devices. The artificial neuron has been implemented by a 2-stage comparator comprised of a differential amplifier and an output inverter to obtain a signum (hard-limiting) nonlinear function. The weighting coefficient values are determined by the size of the transistors used. The network has partial connections between the input layer and the hidden layer, and is fully connected between the hidden layer and output layer. There are 100 input nodes, 16 hidden neurons and 5 output neurons in the network. The physical realization contains approximately 1630 devices that have been fabricated using 3 μ single-polysilicon, double-metal, p-well full custom CMOS technology View full abstract»

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  • A new algorithm to construct parallel adder for high density codes

    Page(s): 851 - 854 vol.2
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    A new method is presented for high-speed parallel addition. The method is shown to be highly efficient both in terms of silicon area consumption and speed. Here the addition is essentially performed by multiple but simultaneous incrementing procedure, called position-incrementing. The method also utilizes operand partitioning, much similar to the method implemented in carry select addition. The operands, after some initial treatments, are partitioned into small (4-bit) groups, and group additions are then performed independently and concurrently for both cases, one with input carry 1 and the other with 0. Next, the appropriate partial sums are selected based on the actual group carries which are separately processed in a multi-stage multiplexer structure. By implementing a recently developed incrementing circuit, and applying the carry select procedure it is shown that the operational delay is relatively small and it almost increases by O(log 2 n), where n is the word size. The algorithm is implemented for a 64-bit adder. The simulation results show high efficiency both in hardware as well as the speed (gate delays). For the 64-bit adder it is shown that the total hardware used is equivalent to 1186 gates (2 input NAND gates) and the maximum operational delay is about 7.5 unit gate delays View full abstract»

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  • Regulation of the glucose concentration for diabetic individuals

    Page(s): 442 - 444 vol.1
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    A proposed state feedback controller is applied to a fourth-order model presenting a glucose homeostasis system. The role of this controller is to assign a certain number of poles to the location of zeros while the rest of the poles are assigned to the origin. Consequently, the glucose concentration presenting the output of the compensated system has a regulated response View full abstract»

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  • Machine vision measurement of pavement-rubber interface contact area for a skid resistance study

    Page(s): 1467 - 1470 vol.2
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    This paper reports the machine vision contributions to a skid-resistance research project. A low-cost vision system provided experimental laboratory estimates of the actual contact area between the uneven surfaces of pavement briquettes and rubber samples. Data were obtained for various load pressures and surface smoothness as simulations of actual time-pavement friction conditions on pavement surfaces View full abstract»

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  • An expert system approach to load balancing in a distributed environment

    Page(s): 1320 - 1323 vol.2
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    Distributed computing systems composed of heterogeneous and autonomous components are continuously growing in their size, complexity and diversity. Resource utilization, such as the CPU and the communication network, vary dynamically. In addition, the quality of service requirements vary from one application to the other. These characteristics necessitate adaptive and dynamic solutions for the load balancing problem. In this research, we are investigating knowledge-based techniques for developing an expert system environment, in which heuristic knowledge and real-time decision making are used to manage such complex and dynamic systems in a decentralized fashion View full abstract»

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  • Neural network control of an unstable process

    Page(s): 35 - 40 vol.1
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    We explore the application of neural network methods to the development of controllers for unstable and highly nonlinear systems using the bioreactor benchmark problem as a concrete example. We demonstrate that the dynamic gradient method leads to controllers that are effective for the nominal plant and robust to reasonable changes of plant parameters View full abstract»

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  • A lookahead arbiter for n-user b-server with non-favorite priority

    Page(s): 629 - 632 vol.1
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    The paper presents the arbiter design using one level and two level lookahead technique with two step arbitration for N-user B-server case with favorite and non-favorite priorities. The implementation of the proposed arbiter can work more efficiently and faster than the iterative method and is fairer and more complete than pure lookahead technique in the realistic multiprocessor system View full abstract»

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  • An efficient surface rendering technique utilizing Fourier descriptors to visualize three dimensional biomedical image data sets

    Page(s): 1247 - 1250 vol.2
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    Three dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of structures and their visualization are becoming essential components to understanding pertinent relationships in branches of biological sciences, engineering, and medicine. The most popular algorithm for 3-D surface rendering for anatomical data utilizes cross-sectional planar contours. In this paper we will introduce a new technique to achieve 3-D surface representation and subsequent visualization using Fourier descriptors. Owing to the orthogonal principle of complex exponential harmonics, we can transform an original 2-D (two Dimensional) problem into 1-D (One Dimensional) problems, thus reducing the computational load dramatically. Examples from NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and CSLM (Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy) will be given to demonstrate surface Fourier descriptors. This paper discusses not only how Fourier descriptors can represent 3-D surfaces efficiently, but also how they can be used to solve preprocessing data problems to create an appealing 3-D visualization. For example, Fourier descriptors can be applied to solve the alignment of starting points in an data set, a problem seldom mentioned in the literature View full abstract»

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