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Proceedings of the IRE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Poles and Zeros

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s): 1813
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Lloyd V. Berkner, Director, 1959

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s): 1814
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s): 1815
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An Analog Computer to Simulate Systems of Coupled Bimolecular Reactions

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1816 - 1820
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)

    An analog computer has been constructed to simulate, as nearly as possible, the flux of material in systems of coupled chemical reactions. Concentrations of various reactants, intermediates, and products are represented by the potentials at the outputs of electronic integrators. Rates of turnover of materials are represented by charges flowing to and from the integrators. The charges are caused to... View full abstract»

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  • Electron Transfer in Biological Systems

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1821 - 1840
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (8122 KB)

    The direct approach to a study of the dynamics of the essential intermediates in life processes is afforded by sensitive optical techniques that accurately measure and record the absorbancy of the iron proteins (cytochromes) in living cells, tissues, and particles derived therefrom. This paper outlines the nature of physical phenomena measurable in the biological systems and emphasizes current thi... View full abstract»

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  • Correction

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s): 1840
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  • Alternating Current Spectroscopy of Biological Substances

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1841 - 1855
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3235 KB)

    The electrical properties of live matter are analyzed. The article first summarizes general principles which pertain to the frequency dependence of the electrical properties of any type of matter. It then states the particular mechanism which, at various parts of the total frequency spectrum, are predominantly responsible for observed data. They include time-dependent interface polarization, accum... View full abstract»

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  • Comments on Microelectrodes

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1856 - 1862
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1423 KB)

    Metal-filled microelectrodes are best for high-frequency work; fluid-filled ones are best for low frequencies and dc. Both have advantages and drawbacks. This paper gives the results of experience with both sorts of probe. Practical hints and recipes are included because these seldom appear in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Some Functions of Nerve Cells in Terms of an Equivalent Network

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1862 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2590 KB)

    A distributed parameter equivalent network of a nerve cell is developed. The network is based upon the electrical constants of nervous tissue. Inserted in the network are electrically and chemically activated generators. Some experimental evidence is given for the properties of the network and the generators, as well as for the location of the generators in the network. The function of the neurons... View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Control of Some Active Bioelectric Membranes

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1869 - 1880
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2423 KB)

    Special purpose real-time analog computers are used to measure and control nerve membrane potential or current in a squid axon or a single frog node. Under current control, the membrane potential has a region of discontinuity and an "action potential" rather similar to that observed in normal impulse propagation. With potential control, the current pattern is a continuous function of the potential... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Muscle under Servo Control

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1880 - 1888
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB)

    Accurate measurement and analysis of the mechanical events in active muscle requires the use of high-speed equipment. A hydraulic servo-valve, controlled by analog units (integrators, adders, inverters), can be used to control the speed of shortening of muscle at rates as high as 1 mm per millisecond. The apparatus can be used for isometric, isotonic, and controlled release experiments. Both relea... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning Microscopy in Medicine and Biology

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1889 - 1894
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2922 KB)

    Scanning microscopy provides the means for extending the range of usefulness of the light microscope in several directions. In addition to the convenience of viewing a large bright image on the television type monitor, it can also enhance the contrast of faintly visible specimens and can extend the convenience of direct observation into the infrared and ultraviolet. By electrical processing of the... View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation for Automatically Prescreening Cytological Smears

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1895 - 1900
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2142 KB)

    Mass-screening application of the cytological smear for the detection of cervical cancer has been limited by a lack of technicians to screen the smears. By using an instrument to identify automatically those smears which are clearly negative, the effectiveness of the technician could be greatly increased. A quantitative analysis of a large number of smears showed that positive smears usually had a... View full abstract»

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  • A Magnetic Flowmeter for Recording Cardiac Output

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1901 - 1912
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2520 KB)

    The cardiac output flow pulse (less coronary flow) can be recorded with a magnetic flowmeter applied to the unopened ascending aorta, provided: 1) the extremely large EKG potentials in this region are rejected, 2) the flowmeter is phase-sensitive, and 3) the over-all instrument response is uniform from zero to 100 cps. These requirements are fulfilled by the instrument described through the use of... View full abstract»

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  • The Use of an Analog Computer for Analysis of Control Mechanisms in the Circulation

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1913 - 1916
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1729 KB)

    Two approaches are presented to the study of regulation in the circulatory system. One consists of programming on an analog computer equations to represent part of the system and then, using suitable transducer, substituting the computer for the biological component. An example is presented in which a part of the mechanism which regulates arterial pressure (the carotid sinus) is simulated. The oth... View full abstract»

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  • Some Engineering Aspects of Modern Cardiac Research

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1917 - 1924
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3222 KB)

    Classical investigation into the function and control of the heart has been conducted on anesthetized open-chested dogs. Unfortunately, both the anesthetics and the exposure of the heart affect cardiac function. Hence, more realistic information would be obtained if the heart could be studied in intact conscious animals. A system has been developed to make possible continuous analysis of the actio... View full abstract»

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  • Stability, Oscillations, and Noise in the Human Pupil Servomechanism

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1925 - 1939
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4031 KB)

    The pupil reflex to light has been considered as a servomechanism, a self-regulated error-actuated control device. This cybernetic approach, requiring the experimenter to make quantitative measurements in animals with a fully intact central nervous system, was made possible using a pupillometer designed for awake, cooperative human subjects. This instrument provided an electronically controlled li... View full abstract»

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  • What the Frog's Eye Tells the Frog's Brain

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1940 - 1951
    Cited by:  Papers (275)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2592 KB)

    In this paper, we analyze the activity of single fibers in the optic nerve of a frog. Our method is to find what sort of stimulus causes the largest activity in one nerve fiber and then what is the exciting aspect of that stimulus such that variations in everything else cause little change in the response. It has been known for the past 20 years that each fiber is connected not to a few rods and c... View full abstract»

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  • Repetitive Analog Computer for Analysis of Sums of Distribution Functions

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1952 - 1956
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB)

    Many experimental procedures yield curves which are sums of distribution functions. Examples of such curves include electrophoretic, diffusion, and ultracentrifugal patterns, absorption spectra, and curves from countercurrent distribution and from partition chromatography in either liquid or vapor phase. In a given type of curve, each of the component functions is identical to the others in form (... View full abstract»

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  • Medical Ultrasonics: Introduction

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1957 - 1958
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Medical Ultrasonics: Absorption of Ultrasound by Tissues and Biological Matter

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1959 - 1962
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB)

    General principles which determine the frequency dependence of both absorption and velocity of ultrasound in matter are outlined and applied to cell suspensions and tissues. The mechanisms which are responsible in the biological case for the experimentally observed frequency dependence of ultrasonic properties are described. They relate predominantly to macromolecular components. Finally, the rela... View full abstract»

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  • Medical Ultrasonics: Diagnostic Applications of Ultrasound

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1963 - 1967
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3945 KB)

    Current research on the use of low-power ultrasound as a diagnostic tool is reviewed. Ultrasonic waves can be used to investigate soft tissue structures which are opaque to light or invisible to X rays. Continuous-wave techniques can picture absorbing or reflecting areas in tissue specimens. Doppler frequencies related to the motion of the heart have also been investigated. Pulse reflection techni... View full abstract»

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  • Medical Ultrasonics: Applications of Ultrasound to Biologic Measurements

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1967 - 1970
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2571 KB)

    The achievement of reliable and reproducible measurements in the broad field of the life sciences demands the highest level of competency among the experts who know how to measure. The new technology called "sonics" encompasses heretofore problematic industrial measurements with ultrasound. The application of sonics for measurement in the biologic sciences gives promise. Methods for measuring the ... View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Electronic Computers to Aid in Medical Diagnosis

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1970 - 1977
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1790 KB)

    With the use of computers several mathematical techniques can be applied to aid certain aspects of medical diagnosis. However, much work remains to be accomplished in trying these methods under practical conditions. Although wide interest has been expressed, few studies have been reported in the literature. Among the potential advantages of computer aids are: making available to the physician quan... View full abstract»

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  • New Instrumentation Concepts for Manned Flight

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):1978 - 1992
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6832 KB)

    The advent of modern aircraft has forced the recognition of three fundamental principles required to optimize human flight control: The first, kinalog attitude display, is an adaptive kinesthetic analog tracing the human orientation as g force is sensed, intended to inhibit the onset of vertigo through the maintenance of continued agreement between the instruments and the human operator's internal... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Periodical ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is Proceedings of the IEEE.

Full Aims & Scope