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Intelligent Transport Systems, IEE Proceedings

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 5 of 5
  • Statechart-based representation of hybrid controllers for vehicle automation

    Page(s): 253 - 258
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB)  

    Recently, designs for the automated highway systems (AHS) to improve the safety and efficiency of highways have attracted much attention. However, such large-scale and complex dynamic systems present a number of control issues. Part of the complication comes from the hybrid nature of these systems, which consists of both time-driven and event-driven dynamics. In this paper, an object-oriented representation towards a hybrid controller design for automated vehicles in an AHS is proposed. The traditional discrete statechart of unified modelling language is extended to model the continuous dynamics of hybrid controllers in a hierarchical and natural representation. The proposed modelling approach provides a clear and natural representation of the interaction between the discrete and continuous behaviours View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of the occlusion technique as a means for evaluating the distraction potential of driver support systems

    Page(s): 259 - 266
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)  

    Driver distraction is a safety-critical issue that has been bought to greater public attention with the recent developments of more advanced driver support systems (DSS), e.g. navigation systems. Such systems have the potential to distract drivers significantly from the primary task of controlling their vehicle, potentially resulting in an accident. DSS developers need to be able to assess distraction potential in the early stages of design. In this respect, the occlusion technique and its associated measures are claimed to be reliable indicators of potential visual demand. In particular, it has been argued that the technique provides more information than other economical methods based on task time whilst stationary (static task time), such as the `15-second rule'. To investigate these assertions, a study compared results from an occlusion assessment and a road-based assessment. Sixteen drivers carried out two tasks using two user-interfaces under three conditions: statically, full vision, statically, restricted vision (occlusion), and whilst driving. Occlusion was found to be a valid technique. In particular, it may be used to distinguish between tasks based on their level of visual demand. It is concluded that occlusion offers advantages over other methods but requires a robust prototype for results to be meaningful View full abstract»

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  • Conjectures on the dynamic functional transformation of intelligent infrastructure

    Page(s): 267 - 275
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB)  

    Although the technology of 'Intelligent Infrastructure' systems is kept absolutely at cutting edge, many of the presumptions about the transport problems they are intended to solve are outdated, in particular the relationship between demand and supply of facilities for movement, which is more complex and more volatile than is suggested in the methodologies which have dominated economic analysis. The conjectures in this paper are that, as a result, there could be a dynamic reorientation of the functions of technologies, which, conceived to solve one set of problems, will be progressively adapted to serve functions other than the original intention. The core driver of this process is the analysis of economic (and environmental) efficiency which leads to the replacement of 'predict and provide' as a way of meeting the unrestricted demand for travel, to 'management for quality' aimed at reducing traffic volumes, enhancing localities, and improving reliability. Three examples are suggested: the technology of real-time information and route advice systems could evolve mainly to serve the policy of charging for road use; technologies intended to allow drivers to maintain high speeds in heavy traffic could be reversed, being used instead for the controlled reduction of speeds; technologies developed to maximise the traffic volumes able to use congested networks can be adapted to give selective improvements to priority classes of road user. The common theme is that technologies originally perceived as providing for an extrapolation of current patterns of demand and current views about the trends underpinning them, will instead be used as active instruments to modify those patterns and trends. This process may be seen as an example of 'unintended effects', though not necessarily undesirable ones: if shifts in the transport policy direction are well-founded, the outcome of such a technological transformation might actually be more efficient, rather than less, than the - pathway initially envisaged. Thus the way in which advanced information technology will impact on transport can be radically different from what was expected, because of fundamental changes (still uncompleted) in the policy context, which in turn derive from the dynamics of competitive but regulated markets in the context of high external costs. It is suggested that this proposition is a possible, perhaps likely, but not inevitable picture of the future development of transport technologies View full abstract»

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  • How to design a more sustainable and fairer built environment: transport and communications

    Page(s): 276 - 291
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (439 KB)  

    Transport and information and communications technologies (ICT) and the city are closely and inextricably linked. These elements must be designed to work together in mutually reinforcing ways so that the economic, environmental and social vitality of the city is maintained and enhanced. Transport must no longer adversely dominate city design, but instead play an important, supporting role in improving the quality of life in the city. This paper explores the debate around urban form, density, settlement size, mixed use developments, the location of housing and neighbourhood design to determine the characteristics of the sustainable city, using empirical and theoretical literature from international sources. Within the new debates of societal change, globalisation and localisation, it then focuses on the role that ICT can have in improving accessibility in the city, before coming to conclusions on the contribution that Intelligent Infrastructure Systems can have in adding to the sustainable and fairer city for the future View full abstract»

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  • Transport and the environment: the need for policy for long-term radical change

    Page(s): 292 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (197 KB)  

    Although transport is an activity fundamental to society, it is also accepted that it has negative impacts. The problem for policy is how to promote economic growth while reducing environmental impacts. The response of society, so far, is inadequate to solve these problems. Dramatic reduction in emissions, are necessary. Most policy analysis does not consider dramatic changes. An important aspect of the limited time horizon of analysis and policy is that there are few plausible and specific visions of very-low-emission transport systems. Directed processes of change-transitions-to new forms of transport are required, in terms of transport systems, the structure of the built environment and lifestyles, and culture. It requires the consideration of how to initiate social and economic processes that will transform transportation. Policy must provide the direction and processes while realising that the ability to control outcomes in detail is limited. The literature on technology transitions is helpful here. The transportation-demand-management (TDM) literature shows how to change behaviour, in particular the need for packages of mutually supporting actions and policies. The literature on sustainable consumption also has useful ideas for strategies to effect behavioural change, similar in some respects to the technological-transitions literature View full abstract»

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