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Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2006. PerCom 2006. Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on

Date 13-17 March 2006

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  • Proceedings. Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - Title Page

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): i - iii
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  • Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - Copyright

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): iv
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  • Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): v - vii
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  • Message from the General Chairs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): viii
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  • Message from the Program Chair and Vice Chairs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): ix
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  • Organizing Committee

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xi
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  • Program Committee Members

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xi
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  • Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xii
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  • A keystroke and pointer control input interface for wearable computers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 10 pp. - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The widespread adoption of mobile electronic devices and the advent of wearable computing have encouraged the development of compact alternatives to the keyboard and mouse. These include one-handed keyboards, digitizing tablets, and glove-based devices. This paper describes a combination pointer position and non-chorded keystroke input device that relies on miniature wrist-worn wireless video cameras that track finger position. A hidden Markov model is used to correlate finger movements to keystrokes during a brief training phase, after which the user can type in the air or above a flat surface as if typing on a standard keyboard. Language statistics are used to help disambiguate keystrokes, allowing the assignment of multiple unique keys to each finger and obviating chorded input. In addition, the system can be trained to recognize certain finger positions for switching between input modes; for example, from typing mode to pointer movement mode. In the latter mode of operation, the position of the mouse pointer is controlled by hand movement. The camera motion is estimated by tracking environmental features and is used to control pointer position. This allows fast switching between keystroke mode and pointer control mode View full abstract»

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  • Cantag: an open source software toolkit for designing and deploying marker-based vision systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 10 pp. - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents Cantag, an open source software toolkit for building marker-based vision (MBV) systems that can identify and accurately locate printed markers in three dimensions. The extensibility of the system makes it ideal for dynamic location and poses determination in pervasive computing systems. Unlike prior MBV systems, Cantag supports multiple fiducial shapes, payload types, data sizes and image processing algorithms in one framework. It allows the application writer to generate a custom tag design and associated optimised executable for any given application. The system includes a test harness which can be used to quantify, compare and contrast the performance of different designs. This paper explores the design space of tags within the Cantag system, and describes the design parameters and performance characteristics which an application writer can use to select the best tag system for any given scenario. It presents quantitative analysis of different markers and processing algorithms, which are compared fairly for the first time View full abstract»

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  • A collaborative Web browsing system for multiple mobile users

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 12 pp. - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In mobile computing environments, handheld devices with low functionality restrict the services provided for mobile users. We propose a new concept of collaborative browsing, where mobile users collaboratively browse Web pages designed for desktop PC. In collaborative browsing, a Web page is divided into multiple components, and each is distributed to a different device. In mobile computing environments, the number of handheld devices, their capabilities, and other conditions can vary widely amongst mobile users who want to browse content. Therefore, we developed a page partitioning method for collaborative browsing, which divides a Web page into multiple components. Moreover, we designed and implemented a collaborative Web browsing system in which users can search and browse their target information by discussing and watching partial pages displayed on multiple devices View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing Bluetooth connectivity with RFID

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 6 pp. - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the challenges in pervasive computing is communication between a mobile user's terminal and the continuously changing local environment. Bluetooth is one potential option for providing connectivity, but its usage is hindered by the time consuming device discovery and service discovery processes. We propose using RFID technology to enhance the Bluetooth connection establishment procedure. We present quantitative evaluation and qualitative user evaluation of our system compared to the standard Bluetooth mechanism. Measurements show that our approach dramatically increases the performance when establishing a Bluetooth connection between two devices. Also users prefer our approach because it is faster to use, there is no need for menu selections, and it is considered easier and more pleasant to use than the standard approach View full abstract»

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  • JiTS: just-in-time scheduling for real-time sensor data dissemination

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 5 pp. - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most existing real-time protocols for sensor data dissemination use packet scheduling schemes to prioritize packets according to their deadlines. However, packet prioritization by itself cannot completely support real-time data dissemination requirements. In this paper, we propose new just-in-time scheduling (JiTS) algorithms that take advantage of the available slack, if any, to reduce contentions and improve real-time performance by judiciously delaying packets as long as their deadlines are not missed. Specifically, we explore several policies for allocating the slack among multiple hops, including a non-linear policy where packets are non-uniformly delayed at intermediate nodes to account for expected higher contentions as packets get closer to the sink(s). Notably, our JiTS policies require neither lower layer support nor synchronization among sensor nodes making for an easy deployment. In our simulation study, JiTS significantly improves the deadline miss ratio and packet drop ratio compared to existing approaches in various situations. It is also shown that the geographic forwarding often used for real-time data dissemination substantially underperforms the shortest path routing especially when the load is high View full abstract»

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  • Application-based routing optimization in static/semi-static wireless sensor networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 5 pp. - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a power aware routing algorithm for WSN exploiting application features and the radio frequency map of the deployed sensors. The suggested methodology can be applied to applications requiring data acquisition from semi-static medium-size networks. The improvement over traditional routing solutions derives from the fact that routing paths and optimal transmission powers are identified through an accurate simulation of the target application (not only at the routing layer) which uses real information such as the power response of the links. The methodology, tested on MICA2 wireless sensor networks, provided a reduction of power consumption of about 40% over the "multihoproute" routing algorithm considered in the TinyOS community View full abstract»

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  • A wearable wireless sensor platform for interactive dance performances

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 6 pp. - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on recent development of a wearable wireless sensor platform for interactive dance performances. At a fraction of a cubic-centimeter in volume, this platform is truly wearable and scalable informing wireless networks. Integrated with a wide variety of different sensing devices, it is a real-time monitoring system for activities and physical conditions of the human body. The effectiveness of this platform is demonstrated with an interactive dance performance View full abstract»

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  • Dialing for displays: session initiation protocol for opportunistic augmentation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 6 pp. - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Opportunistic augmentation denotes connecting a personal mobile device to another device to gain a transient advantage for the user. For example, a mobile phone user might borrow a large display and keyboard from a desktop personal computer. This uniquely ubiquitous computing activity requires effective device and service discovery as well as appropriate media usable across two or more devices. In this paper we show how session initiation protocol (SIP), the call signaling protocol for voice over IP, effectively separates discovery from media-rendering selection in opportunistic augmentation. This separation improves system flexibility while allowing users or system administrators to choose the most appropriate discovery technologies for the environment. We also describe two phone-centric discovery mechanisms and demonstrate the practicality of the system by implementation and use in a test environment View full abstract»

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  • Multi-user mobile applications and a public display: novel ways for social interaction

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 5 pp. - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we introduce prerequisites for the empowerment of social interaction when using a multi-user mobile service. The paper is based on a case study of user experiences of a multiplayer mobile game where the players attend the game via their mobile phones whilst their activity is materialized on a common public display. Based on the results of user evaluation we introduce three enabling factors for social interaction in a multiplayer game: context, communication and identification. User aspects to these factors as well as perspectives to other types of services are presented View full abstract»

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  • Inverted browser: a novel approach towards display symbiosis

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 6 pp. - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we introduce the inverted browser, a novel approach to enable mobile users to view content from their personal devices on public displays. The inverted browser is a network service to start and control a browser that is then used to view the content. In contrast to a traditional Web browser, which runs on the client device and pulls content from a server, content is pushed to the inverted browser from a personal data source upon user input. This approach allows a wide variety of personal content to be viewed by facilitating symbiotic relationships between mobile devices and intelligent displays in the environment. Our initial inverted browser prototype is based on a Web services wrapper around a traditional Web browser. Our experiments show that the inverted browser approach is superior to other solutions in terms of user convenience, ease of use, energy consumption, and privacy, but interaction latencies need improvement View full abstract»

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  • Omero: ubiquitous user interfaces in the plan B operating system

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 5 pp. - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is difficult to build user interfaces that must be distributed over a set of dynamic and heterogeneous I/O devices. This difficulty increases when we want to split, merge, replicate, and relocate the UI across a set of heterogeneous devices, without the application intervention. Furthermore, using generic tools, e.g. to search for UI components or to save/restore them, is usually not feasible. We follow a novel approach for building UIs that overcomes these problems: using distributed file systems that export widgets to applications. In this paper we describe Omero, a UI server built along this line for the plan B operating system View full abstract»

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  • Context aware service using intra-body communication

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 8 pp. - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An intuitive context aware service between two devices is possible using touch with the direct digital intra-body communication. Using this technology, users with multimedia devices may simply touch them to establish network connection, transfer data, and provide the required service; hence the name touch-and-play (TAP). Using TAP, users can disclose their context by touching the specific device. For instance, a user carrying a digital camera touches the TV to begin a slide show or a printer to print a photo. TAP is expected to enable the provision of intuitive, context-aware service. This paper discusses the communication protocol of TAP and its application View full abstract»

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  • Concept for hierarchical and distributed processing of area based triggers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 11 pp. - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Area based triggers denote notifications being generated if a mobile client changes its spatial relation to a defined area, e.g. if it enters or leaves it. By these triggers, new valuable services can be provided for mobile users. One of the main challenges is to design a suited approach for the computation of the triggers based on the defined areas and the current whereabouts of the mobile clients. With a rising number of areas and participants of these services, the need for a scalable solution to process the triggers emerges. This paper examines a new approach for the distributed, hierarchical processing of area based triggers based on the aggregation and segregation of both triggers and the setup messages requesting the services in a carrier access network. We investigate the signaling effort and computational complexity of the approach based on the required effort for an emerging position update of a mobile client in the network. The results are compared analytically with two other approaches, a centralized and a hierarchical one. Our analysis shows that our approach leads to a superior performance in terms of the effort for signaling and computation View full abstract»

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  • Virtual channel management for densely deployed IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPANs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 11 pp. - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The number of channels specified for IEEE 802.15.4 low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) is too few to operate many applications of WPANs in the same area. To overcome this limit, we introduce virtual channel, a novel concept to increase the number of available channels when various WPAN applications coexist. A virtual channel is basically created via superframe scheduling within the inactive periods in a logical channel preoccupied by other WPANs. To maximize the coexistence capability of WPANs using virtual channels, we propose (1) least collision superframe scheduler (LC-scheduler), (2) less complex heuristics, and (3) virtual channel selector (VCS) to efficiently manage multiple available logical channels. In addition, a simple but practical synchronization method is developed to compensate different time drifts among coexisting WPANs. The simulation results demonstrate that a remarkable improvement on the coexistence capability of the 802.15.4 can be achieved through the proposed schemes View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive multi-constraint partitioning algorithm for offloading in pervasive systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 10 pp. - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Offloading is a kind of mechanism utilized in pervasive systems to leverage the severity of resource constraints of mobile devices by migrating part of the classes of a pervasive service/application to some resource-rich nearby surrogates. A pervasive service application needs to be partitioned prior to offloading. Such partitioning algorithms play a critical role in a high-performance offloading system. This paper proposes an adaptive (k+1) partitioning algorithm that partitions a given application into 1 unoffloadable partition and k offloadable partitions. Furthermore, these partitions satisfy the multiple constraints imposed by either application users or mobile device resources. Underpinning the partitioning algorithm is a dynamic multi-cost graph that models the costs of an application in terms of its component classes (including CPU cost, memory cost and communication cost), and a Heavy-Edge and Light-Vertex Matching (HELVM) algorithm to coarsen the multi-cost graph. An offloading toolkit implementing the above algorithms has been developed, upon which the evaluations are carried out. The outcomes of the evaluation have indicated a higher level of performance of our algorithm in terms of its efficiency and cost-effectiveness View full abstract»

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  • Plan B: an operating system for ubiquitous computing environments

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 10 pp. - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The conventional approach for building pervasive environments relies on middleware to integrate different systems. Instead, we have built a system that can deal with these environments by exporting system resources through distributed virtual file systems. This requires no middleware, simplifies interoperation, and permits applying general purpose tools to any system resource. A constraint-based file system import mechanism allows the system to adapt to changes in the environment and permits users to customize the environment and tailor adaptation according to their needs. The system has been in use for over a year to carry out our daily work and is underlying the smart space that we built for our department View full abstract»

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