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Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on

Date 18-22 April 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 771
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): nil1 - nil39
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  • Dynamic Control of a Bipedal Walking Robot actuated with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the control structure of the pneumatic biped Lucy. The robot is actuated with pleated pneumatic artificial muscles, which have interesting characteristics that can be exploited for legged machines. They have a high power to weight ratio, an adaptable compliance and they can reduce impact effects. The discussion of the control architecture focusses on the joint trajectory generator and the tracking controller which is divided in four parts: a computed torque module, an inverse delta-p unit, a local PI controller and a bang-bang pressure controller. The control design is divided into single support and double support where specifically the computed torque differs for these two phases. A full hybrid dynamic simulation model is used to evaluate the control architecture of the biped. This simulator combines the dynamical behaviour of the robot with the thermodynamical effects that take place in the muscle-valves system. The observed hardware limitations of the real robot and expected model errors are taken into account in order to give a realistic qualitative evaluation of the control performance and to test the robustness. Finally the first results of the incorporation of this control architecture in the real biped Lucy are given. View full abstract»

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  • Further Steps Toward More Human-like Passive Bipedal Walking Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 7 - 11
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    This paper describes two-legged mechanical structure with ankle, knee and hip joints that is capable of walking in naturally stable walking cycle on downhill slope without presence of energy source. Bipedal model has elastic strings attached to the designated places that imitate a part of human muscular-skeletal system. By combining spring-like properties with passive walking principles we accomplish energy exchanges between biped segments during stance and swing phases that also simultaneously facilitate solution to foot clearance problem during swing phase by enabling the biped to perform rocking movement in lateral plane. We designed and examined behavior of the biped when walking with extended and flexible knees. The observed joint trajectories in the configuration with flexed knees were very similar to those observed in normal human walking. The results show new perspectives on future bipedal robots development and for studying involvement of particular muscle in human gait. View full abstract»

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  • A Bio-inspired Neuro-Controller for an Anthropomorphic Head-Arm Robotic System

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 12 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, advances and improvements in engineering and robotics have been strengthening interactions between biological science and robotics in the goal of mimicking the complexity of biological systems. In this paper, motor control paradigms inspired by human mechanisms of sensory-motor coordination are applied to a biologically-inspired, purpose-designed robotic platform. The goal was to define and implement a multi-network architecture and to demonstrate that progressive learning of object grasping and manipulation can greatly increase performance of a robotic system in terms of adaptability, flexibility, growing competences and generalization, while preserving the robustness of traditional control. The paper presents the neural approach to sensory-motor coordination and shows preliminary results of the integration with the robotic system by means of simulation tests and experimental trials. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Emergency of Humanoid Robots by an Attractor Design of a Nonlinear Dynamics

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 18 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The human motions are generated through the interaction between the body and its environments. The information processing system defines the current motion using the signal feedback of the body state and environments. The motion pattern dose not exits a priori but emerges as the result of the entrainment phenomenon for the dynamics of the information processing, the human body and its environments. In this paper, based on the dynamics-based information processing system, we propose the motion emergency system design method for a humanoid robot designing a dynamical system that has an attractor considering the robot body dynamics. From the control engineering point of view, the proposed method designs a controller that stabilizes the robot to an equilibrium trajectory. View full abstract»

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  • The vSLAM Algorithm for Robust Localization and Mapping

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 24 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (51)  |  Patents (53)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAMTM) algorithm, a novel algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). The algorithm is vision-and odometry-based, and enables low-cost navigation in cluttered and populated environments. No initial map is required, and it satisfactorily handles dynamic changes in the environment, for example, lighting changes, moving objects and/or people. Typically, vSLAM recovers quickly from dramatic disturbances, such as “kidnapping”. View full abstract»

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  • Vision SLAM in the Measurement Subspace

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 30 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we describe an approach to feature representation for simultaneous localization and mapping, SLAM. It is a general representation for features that addresses symmetries and constraints in the feature coordinates. Furthermore, the representation allows for the features to be added to the map with partial initialization. This is an important property when using oriented vision features where angle information can be used before their full pose is known. The number of the dimensions for a feature can grow with time as more information is acquired. At the same time as the special properties of each type of feature are accounted for, the commonalities of all map features are also exploited to allow SLAM algorithms to be interchanged as well as choice of sensors and features. In other words the SLAM implementation need not be changed at all when changing sensors and features and vice versa. Experimental results both with vision and range data and combinations thereof are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Entropy Minimization SLAM Using Stereo Vision

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 36 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present an information-based approach to solve the SLAM problem using stereo vision. This approach results for an improvement, in terms of both efficiency and robustness, of our early multi-view ICP randomized algorithm. Instead of minimizing an ICP-based cost, we propose the minimization of the entropy of the 2D distribution induced by the projection of the 3D point cloud. In addition we embed both the egomotion/action estimation algorithm which precedes global rectification and the new global rectification algorithm in an autonomous exploration schema. We assume plane-parallel environments and, for the sake of efficiency, we also assume a flat floor and a fixed stereo camera mounted on the robot. We show successful experiments both under tele-operating the robot and under autonomous navigation. View full abstract»

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  • A Visual Front-end for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 44 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a method of generating and utilizing visual landmarks that is well suited for SLAM applications. The landmarks created are highly distinctive and reliably detected, virtually eliminating the data association problem present in other landmark schemes. Upon subsequent detections of a landmark, a 3-D pose can be estimated. The scheme requires a single camera. View full abstract»

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  • Tele-existence Vision System with Image Stabilization for Rescue Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this research is to develop an intuitive interface to control rescue robots. We propose a new image stabilization system for easy operation of rescue robots. A promising method to search victims in rubble, is the use of teleoperated rescue robots. In the rescue activities with such robots, operators remotely control the robots through images captured by cameras mounted on the robots. Since the orientation of the robots change intensively while they move in rubble, image stabilization is necessary so that the operators can search victims without suffering from fatigue nor motion sickness. However, the orientation changes of the rescue robots are so intensive that conventional methods may not be capable of stabilizing the camera images. In this paper, we propose a new image stabilization system which can cancel the camera motion due to the intensive changes of the robot’s orientation on an uneven terrain. After a preliminary experiment, a 3-DOF camera system was designed based on the newly proposed mechanism. To verify the performance of the camera system, we conducted three experiments. The result of the experiments confirmed that the proposed mechanism shows good performance in motion stabilization as well as good performance in tracking the commanded head motion. Finally, we verified that the camera system works properly even when it was mounted on a crawler running on an uneven terrain. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of driving delay with an acoustical tele-presence robot, TeleHead

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 56 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    TeleHead is an acoustical tele-presence robot that has a user-like dummy head whose movement synchronizes with the listener’s head movement in real time. Here, we summarize the concept of TeleHead and suggest a learning effect for driving delay. The results show that even if there is 1-s delay in TeleHead’s movement, synchronization with the listener’s head movement is still effective. In addition, a user can adapt to even over 1-s delay for transmission without any feedback. This suggests a strong adaptability for delay, which can not be avoided in using tele-operated robots such as TeleHead. View full abstract»

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  • Telepresence Systems With Automatic Preservation of User Head Height, Local Rotation, and Remote Translation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 62 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mutually-Immersive Mobile Telepresence uses a teleoperated robotic surrogate to visit remote locations as a substitute for physical travel. Our goal is to recreate to the greatest extent practical, both for the user and the people at the remote location, the sensory experience relevant for face-to-face interactions of the user actually being in the remote location. To enhance immersion for the user, our second-generation system can automatically preserve the head height of the user at the remote location. In order to eliminate loss of immersion due to teleoperation delays, in our third generation system we are eliminating one class of teleoperated mechanical motion by allowing rotations to take place at the user’s location instead of at the remote location. A key component of this is a low-profile synchronous drive base. We also provide a novel natural interface for controlling translational motion at the remote location. View full abstract»

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  • Incremental Motion Compression for Telepresent Walking Subject to Spatial Constraints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 69 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In telepresence, it is critical for the local user to control the remote agent’s movement through his own locomotion in order to ensure a high degree of realism. Since the local user’s environment is normally different from that of the remote agent, there exists a motion mapping from the remote agent to the local user. After the path of the remote agent is predicted or recognized, it should be transformed to fit into the local environment, considering the constraints from the local environment, and ensuring utmost similarities in the shape and length of the paths. Moreover, terminal position of the local user in the local environment after a piece of known movement should also be carefully arranged after path transformation for his consecutive motions. These issues are incrementally addressed from the optimization point of view. Two schemes are proposed for path transformation problem. Extensive simulations and comparisons show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Competitive Multi-robot Teleoperation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel kind of multi-operator multi-robot(MOMR) teleoperation systems - the competitive teleoperation system. Compared with the conventional collaborated MOMR teleoperation system, features and properties of the competitive teleoperation system are presented. Futhermore, major concerns of research and development for this kind of systems are discussed subsequently. Finally, telegame, a kind of Internet-based competitive teleoperation systems, is built as the prototype to support the future research on this aspect and some experimental results are presented to support the discussion. View full abstract»

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  • Making Collective Behaviours to work through Implicit Communication

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 81 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how stigmergic information allow each individual of a group of autonomous robots to take advantages from other individual behaviors. The proposed analysis is based on the roboticle model where sensor data and effector commands are treated as energy exchange between the robot and its environment, eventually populated by other robots. Without explicit communication, the collective behavior of a group of teammates can be forced only if the robot designer makes each robot to become aware of distinguishing configuration patterns in the environment. Usually, the job is accomplished both by evaluating descriptive conditions as macroparameters and an appropriate dynamic role assignment among teammates. Since observed individual behaviors can affect the normal course of operations for each robot propagating to other teammates, we want to address some issues on how a collective behavior is fired and maintained. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Group Communication Protocol for Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 87 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile robot teams have many useful applications such as search and rescue, exploration and hazard detection and analysis. Communication between the robots of a team as well as between the robots and a human operator or controller are useful for many applications. Many applications of mobile robots involve scenarios in which no communication infrastructure such as base stations exist (e.g. demining in battlefields) or the existing infrastructure is damaged (e.g. search and rescue after an earthquake). In such scenarios, it is necessary for mobile robots to form an ad hoc network to enable communication by forwarding each other’s packets. In many applications, group communication can be used for flexible control, organization, and management of the mobile robots. Multicast provides a bandwidth efficient communication method between a source and a group of robots. In this paper, we propose an efficient multicast protocol MRMM (Mobile Robot Mesh Multicast) for deployment in mobile robot networks. MRMM exploits the fact that mobile robots know what velocity they are instructed to move at and for what distance in building a long lifetime sparse mesh for group communication that is more efficient. Our results show that MRMM provides an efficient group communication mechanism that can potentially be used in many mobile robot application scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Unicast Messaging for Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 93 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile multi-robot teams are useful in many critical applications such as search and rescue. Explicit communication among robots in such mobile multi-robot teams is useful for the coordination of such teams as well as exchanging data. Since many applications for mobile robots involve scenarios in which communication infrastructure may be damaged or unavailable, mobile robot teams frequently need to communicate with each other by using ad hoc networking. In such scenarios, energy efficient routing protocols to deliver messages among robots are a key requirement. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two routing protocols tailored for use in ad hoc networks formed by mobile multi-robot teams: Mobile Robot Distance Vector (MRDV) and Mobile Robot Source Routing (MRSR). Both protocols exploit the unique mobility characteristics of mobile robot networks to perform efficient routing. Our simulation study show that both MRDV and MRSR incur lower overhead while operating in mobile robot networks when compared to traditional mobile ad hoc network routing protocols such as DSR and AODV. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Alternate Methods for Distributed Motion Planning of Robot Collectives within a Potential Field Framework

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two candidate formulations for distributed motion planning of robot collectives within an Artificial Potential Field (APF) framework. We exploit the parallel between the formulation of motion planning for group of robots coupled by constraints and the forward dynamics simulation of constrained multibody systems to develop the candidate approaches. We compare and contrast these approaches on the basis of ease of formulation, distribution of computation and overall computational accuracy. Traditionally penalty formulations have enjoyed a prominent position in motion planning of robot collectives due to their ease of formulation, decentralization and scalability. However, the instabilities introduced in the form of “formulation stiffness” at the algorithm development stage have the potential to hinder the subsequent control. Representative results from the distributed motion planning for a group of 3 point-mass robots moving in formation to a desired target location are used to highlight the differences. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Research of a Passive Multiple Trailer System for Backward Motion Control

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 105 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A passive multiple trailer system provides various practical advantages in order to develop multi-functional service robots. So far, we have proposed kinematic design of passive trailers, and backward motion control schemes in our prior work. In this paper, we propose two significant considerations based on practical experiences on backward control of multi-trailer system. The first issue is an analysis on the effect of joint errors. Joint errors include joint angle sensing errors and backlashes at the joints. Due to the joint error, the trajectory shows an offset distance from a desired reference path. A second issue is a slip detection based on a simplified dynamic model of the trailer system. The trailer system is designed based on the kinematic constraints, which imply rolling without slipping at wheels. We discuss how a practical trailer system can be controlled without violating kinematic constraints. Finally, we show the analogies and relationships between the off-hooked trailer and the previously proposed three point trailer. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Planning Algorithms for a Group of Micro-Robots Carrying an Object

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 111 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the area of micro-robotics, control problems have to cope with a number of issues not found on macro-scale robotics. Micro robots moving in the micro-world have limited capabilities and frequently must cooperate in large numbers. In this paper we focus at an object carrying task performed by a number of micro-robots. We study a number of combinations, of agent-object contact types and agent motion principles in order to find algorithms of decomposing a given object trajectory to agent trajectories. View full abstract»

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  • Reconfiguration Planning Among Obstacles for Heterogeneous Self-Reconfiguring Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 117 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most reconfiguration planners for self-reconfiguring robots do not consider the placement of specific modules within the configuration. Recently, we have begun to investigate heterogeneous reconfiguration planning in lattice-based systems, in which there are various classes of modules. The start and goal configurations specify the class of each module, in addition to placement. Our previous work presents solutions for this problem with unrestricted free space available to the robot during reconfiguration, and also free space limited to a thin connected region over the entire surface of the configuration. In this paper, we further this restriction and define free space by an arbitrarily-shaped bounding region. This addresses the important problem of reconfiguration among obstacles, and reconfiguration over a rigid surface. Our algorithm plans module trajectories through the volume of the structure, and is divided into two phases: shape-forming, and sorting the goal configuration to correctly position modules by class. The worst-case running time for the first phase is O(n2) with O(n2) moves for an n-module robot, and a loose upper bound for the second phase is O(n4) time and moves. However, we show this bound to be Θ (n2)time and moves in common instances. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Object Detection at Regions of Interest with an Application in Ball Recognition

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 125 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a new combination of a biologically inspired attention system (VOCUS – Visual Object detection with a CompUtational attention System) with a robust object detection method. As an application, we built a reliable system for ball recognition in the RoboCup context. Firstly, VOCUS finds regions of interest generating a hypothesis for possible locations of the ball. Secondly, a fast classifier verifies the hypothesis by detecting balls at regions of interest. The combination of both approaches makes the system highly robust and eliminates false detections. Furthermore, the system is quickly adaptable to balls in different scenarios: The complex classifier is universally applicable to balls in every context and the attention system improves the performance by learning scenario-specific features quickly from only a few training examples. View full abstract»

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  • Urban Object Recognition from Informative Local Features

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 131 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Autonomous mobile agents require object recognition for high level interpretation and localization in complex scenes. In urban environments, recognition of buildings might play a dominant role in robotic systems that need object based navigation, that take advantage of visual feedback and multimodal information for self-localization, or that enable association to related information from the identified semantics. We present a new method – the informative local features approach – based on an information theoretic saliency measure that is rapidly derived from a local Parzen window density estimation in feature subspace. From the learning of a decision tree based mapping to informative features, it enables attentive access to discriminative information and thereby significantly speeds up the recognition process. This approach is highly robust with respect to severe degrees of partial occlusion, noise, and tolerant to some changes in scale and illumination. We present performance evaluation on our publicly available reference object database (TSG-20) that demonstrates the efficiency of this approach, case wise even outperforming the SIFT feature approach [1]. Building recognition will be advantageous in various application domains, such as, mobile mapping, unmanned vehicle navigation, and systems for car driver assistance. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Computational Methods for Visually Guided Robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 138 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes numerical algorithms for reducing the computational cost of semi-supervised and active learning procedures for visually guided mobile robots from O(M3to O(M), while reducing the storage requirements from M2to M . This reduction in cost is essential for real-time interaction with mobile robots. The considerable speed ups are achieved using Krylov subspace methods and the fast Gauss transform. Although these state-of-the-art numerical algorithms are known, their application to semi-supervised learning, active learning and mobile robotics is new and should be of interest and great value to the robotics community. We apply our fast algorithms to interactive object recognition on Sony’s ERS-7 Aibo. We provide comparisons that clearly demonstrate remarkable improvements in computational speed. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Appearance Based Object Recognition: A Hybrid Approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 144 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual object recognition is a useful skill for robots to possess. However, present approaches to the problem do not scale to large numbers of objects (few manage more than 10) and require too much computation for real-time tasks on a robot. This paper presents a hybrid decision tree/support vector machine approach to recognition which is fast, with recognition times under one second. A new test dataset is also presented, consisting of over 100,000 images of Lego bricks, acquired by repeatedly dropping the bricks. The proposed method achieves 96% accuracy on the set of 89 different types of Lego bricks, demonstrating its applicability for large-scale real-time visual object recognition. View full abstract»

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