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Industrial Informatics, 2005. INDIN '05. 2005 3rd IEEE International Conference on

Date 10-12 Aug. 2005

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  • 2005 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)

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  • 2005 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) (IEEE Cat. No. 05EX1057)

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  • Copyright page

    Page(s): ii
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - vii
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  • Real-time middleware for the requirements of distributed process control

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Process control applications are large distributed systems containing a vast number of communication links between their fragments. These links may have unique properties with respect to communication mechanisms and real-time quality of service attributes. Frequent dynamic reconfiguration of the application is only possible if these links can be updated automatically. This paper explores the possibility of using commercially available standard-based real-time middleware for managing the communication links. The special requirements of process automation are described and used to derive test cases for middleware products. Some results and experiences with the real-time publish-subscribe middleware are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile information processing incorporating location-based services

    Page(s): 7 - 12
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    Mobile technology has been increasingly in demand and is widely used to allow people to be connected wirelessly without having to worry about the distance barrier. Location-dependent information services have becoming more critical in the world of mobile technology. Most commonly, a mobile user would like to gain useful information from the list of data wirelessly downloaded from a similar source but from different locations, making the downloaded contents slightly different in some cases or very different in other cases. There are always similarity and differences from data downloaded from a similar source. In this paper, we propose several techniques for processing location-dependent mobile queries, which are of particular in location-based service industries (e.g. tourism, entertainment, marketing, etc). We divide the proposed techniques into two main classifications: mobile device side processing (MDSP) and server side processing (SSP). Each of these proposed techniques comes in a number of variants. An implementation and performance evaluation are reported and critically analyzed. Our results show that in most situations, the second version of the server side processing (SSP2) appears to out perform the others. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture for automation system development based on IEC 61499 standard

    Page(s): 13 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces an idea of a validatable architecture for software intensive industrial automation systems. The validation means will be provided through the formal modeling of automation systems, including both modeling of uncontrolled behavior of the equipment and modeling of the control system. This will be achieved through the facilitated reuse and integration of basic models to the models of complex systems. The validation will be empowered by advanced formal verification techniques combined with more usual testing by simulation. The discussed architecture bases on the latest developments in automation such as IEC 61499 standard, on the latest trends in model-based software engineering, e.g. UML, and on modular modeling concepts of condition/event systems. View full abstract»

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  • Function block applications based on an object oriented middleware

    Page(s): 19 - 24
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    Design methods in the area of automation are dominated by the function block approach. These blocks represent a kind of object with an internal behavior. The blocks interact via input and output variables with their environment. In order to improve the engineering and the system design, other approaches like method invocations or statements about the component quality, coming from computer science, have to be considered. One promising approach among others is the usage of ports for the interaction of objects and the usage of meta information about quality representative attributes. This article describes an approach for a distributed, object-oriented automation system, based on objects interacting via the port concept which can be designed by a high level language DOME-L, offering the additional features for defining the automation objects. View full abstract»

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  • The JAKOBI architecture - a distributed dynamic execution environment in Java

    Page(s): 25 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The JAKOBI (Java and component based industrial control) concept is a fully Java based architecture which provides an execution environment for distributed control applications based on real-time Java following the RTSJ-specification. A special focus was on concepts providing the possibility to exchange parts of the control application during runtime. Problematic aspects of a RTSJ based implementation are discussed and a test system proving the applicability of these mechanisms is described. View full abstract»

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  • Web based methodology for engineering and maintenance of distributed control systems: the TORERO approach

    Page(s): 32 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the architecture and the methodology of a distributed control system (DCS) which is based on intelligent field devices and an integrative development environment (IDC) in connection with software servers as a basic source of software within this innovative automation environment. This approach covers the whole life cycle of the DCS, ranging from the hardware independent design of the control application, to the operation of the system during runtime including both the engineering and the maintenance process. The methodology is strongly based on the application of plug-and-play mechanisms in the field device level and the usage of IEC 61499 function blocks to design the control application. The open source tool Eclipse is the basis for the IDE and provides a powerful and scalable framework for the integration of software modules. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a data pre-processing scheme and pluggable application modules for an intelligent equipment prognostics system

    Page(s): 38 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a data pre-processing scheme and pluggable application modules for an intelligent equipment prognostics system (IEPS) that can be applied to predictive maintenance of equipment in semiconductor and TFT-LCD industries. The IEPS comprises three major portions: a remote host, generic embedded devices (GEDs), and pluggable application modules. The remote host can receive data from GED for analyses, control, or prognostics. The GED can be easily embedded into diverse types of equipment to acquire equipment parameters. It has an open-standard application interface through which different prediction and analysis modules are allowed to plug in the prognostics system. The data pre-processing scheme is GUI-based and through composing data collection plans (DCPs). Specifically, the common equipment model (CEM) of equipment is collected to a graphic user interface through equipment self-description (ESD) in the GED. Then, the user can conveniently select the desired equipment parameters for the prognostics system to perform operations of analyses, control, and prediction. This paper also presents the design guide of the pluggable application modules for the user to follow to quickly develop a new PAM for equipment prognostics. By using the proposed data pre-processing scheme and pluggable application modules, the prognostics system can be generically used in diverse types of equipment without changing the system architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Development of re-configurable distributed controllers in 61499 based on task schedules described by UML diagrams or Gantt charts

    Page(s): 44 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3063 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Achieving re-configurability and flexibility of the control software was one of the main factors that stimulated the emergence of the standard IEC 61499. The current paper is concerned with the re-configurability aspect in terms of control process within the scope of this standard as a task scheduling approach is presented as a probable solution. Task scheduling is proposed as a means of describing the process sequences of a sub-system in an effective and reconfigurable way. When orders of the processes need to be changed for a different mode of operation or even in case of total depreciation of the previous processing sequences, the changes can be actuated through task schedules. This allows re-configurability of the sub-system to be achieved during runtime without stalling the controlled operations. The task schedules can also be associated with a maximum time limit for particular task executions and this may help in monitoring the controlled hardware's actions. For the description of the schedules timing and sequence diagram of UML as well as Gantt charts are investigated. The implementation of the proposed approach on a resource-restricted hardware imposes some additional design constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Intuitive control engineering for mechatronic components in distributed automation systems based on the reference model of IEC 61499

    Page(s): 50 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current research on mechatronic engineering focuses mainly on engineering methodologies. This paper presents a new architecture based on the reference model of IEC 61499. This architecture includes both, the engineering view of a device represented by its services and their representation within the control application as function blocks that are used within the whole distributed automation system. The services of a mechatronic component are its special functionalities, for instance motion in the case of a linear servo drive. The direct relation between services and IEC 61499 function blocks enables simple and intuitive control engineering for the user. In this paper the usage of this novel integrated approach is demonstrated by the example of a linear axis. Each movement of the axis corresponds to a certain function block. The control application itself is modeled by associating the motion sequence with the services encapsulated in function blocks. The embedded control platform of the mechatronic component executes the application control logic and each device within the network is able to access the services of a certain mechatronic component. Therefore device vendors are able to enhance their products by integrating their special intellectual property. The users can access the functionality of the mechatronic components without regard to its implementation details. View full abstract»

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  • A real-time Linux execution environment for function-block based distributed control applications

    Page(s): 56 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1869 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The function block (FB) construct has been adopted by recent IEC standards for the design of reusable, interoperable, distributed control applications. Complete applications can be defined in the design level as networks of interconnected FB instances. In this paper an execution environment for FB-based distributed control applications is presented. The proposed environment favors the deployment and re-deployment of complex distributed control applications and provides the infrastructure that is required to satisfy real-time constraints for this application domain. Specific tools have been developed in the context of the model integrated mechatronics paradigm, to support the automatic code generation of implementation models from FB design models as well as their subsequent deployment on the proposed execution environment. Performance metrics prove the real-timeliness of the implemented environment. View full abstract»

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  • Executing real-time constrained control applications modelled in IEC 61499 with respect to dynamic reconfiguration

    Page(s): 62 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New fast moving markets demand flexible, adaptable production facilities to allow manufacturing companies a fast reaction on consumer needs. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems provide a solution for these problems. Currently used software architectures have not been designed for providing an infrastructure for such manufacturing systems. With the new standard IEC 61499 the International Electrotechnical Commission provides an architecture for flexible distributed control systems. But it leaves open points regarding real-time execution and reconfiguration in realtime. This work focuses on real-time execution of IEC 61499 applications. It describes all execution elements of IEC 61499 within a device. Different implementation and scheduling approaches are compared and discussed. A first real-time scheduling approach for IEC 61499 control applications allows executing applications with periodic real-time constraints in parallel to unconstrained applications. It serves as a base for an enhanced full featured IEC 61499 real-time execution support. View full abstract»

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  • Object-oriented methodology to the development of embedded real-time systems

    Page(s): 68 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing complexity of today's embedded real-time systems demands new methods and tools to manage the problems of design, analysis, integration, and validation of complex systems. Focusing this issue, the present paper describes an object-oriented platform-based design process for real-time embedded systems. The proposed approach promotes a smooth transition from high-level RT-UML specification to the final embedded system, which is composed by hardware and software components. The transition from higher to lower abstraction levels is facilitated by the use of an OO real-time API, whose underlying facilities can be optimized according to the application needs and selected platform. An integrated toolset is used to support the intermediate steps of the design process. In order to illustrate the proposed approach and related toolset the design of an embedded real-time automation system for an "intelligent" wheelchair is presented. The paper also includes a performance evaluation of the implemented control and automation system for the wheelchair application, with focus on timing requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of distributed hierarchical automation and control systems with IEC 61499

    Page(s): 74 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a prototypical implementation of a Java thread-based run-time environment for IEC 61499 applications and its use in the application design process. In particular, the paper focuses on the features of the developed environment and on its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this work is also to show the potentialities and the limitations of the IEC 61499 models in practical utilization. The described run-time environment has been tested for different application examples for both discrete manufacturing systems and motion control problems. View full abstract»

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  • An IEC 61499 application generator for scan-based industrial controllers

    Page(s): 80 - 85
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    In order to cope with today's market uncertainties, manufacturing is required to rapidly adapt and react to changes and unpredictable scenarios. These are currently among the main research and development topics in order to reveal new approaches and methodologies to achieve these goals. The Industrial Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) created the IEC 61499 (function block) standard. This standard proposes an open architecture for distributed industrial-process measurement and control systems (IPMCS). The IEC 61499 defines the basic concepts and methodology for the design of modular reusable distributable systems, and paves the way for the new reconfigurable and flexible manufacturing. This paper presents the development of a software tool (IEC 61499 application generator) that enables the deployment of IEC 61499 applications to scan-based embedded controllers. However, the IEC 61499 standard foundations rely on an event-based model. The paper describes an approach to implement an event-based architecture on a scan-based industrial controller. View full abstract»

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  • A path to industrial adoption of distributed control technology

    Page(s): 86 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses prospects of commercial application of IEC61499 standard based on past experiences and the future research & development plans of TCS (NZ) Ltd. The global trends in distributed control are analysed along with specific requirements of industries in New Zealand. A collaborative approach is considered to be the best path to industrial incubation and adoption of the technology, thereby turning the vision of distributed control into reality and it is possible to do within the next two years. View full abstract»

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  • Towards end-to-end QoS in service oriented architectures

    Page(s): 92 - 97
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time sensitive networked applications require quality of service (QoS) support in the access networks in order to allocate resources that guarantee the timely delivery of data packets. The European IST integrated project EuQoS provides means to interoperate QoS solutions across selected access networks made available to application developers through a well defined interface. Software oriented architectures (SOA) here offer a promising approach to conceal the establishment of QoS sessions in the heterogeneous access network infrastructure behind a dedicated set of standardized interfaces. While UPnP as a deployment of a SOA defines a QoS architecture that aims to provide QoS support to locally networked devices, it does not allow for inter-domain QoS which is essential for networked applications that increasingly strive for deployment across converging networks (e.g. video-on-demand). This paper presents a new integrated approach that complements the UPnP QoS architecture with the EuQoS system. It encapsulates layer-3 QoS routing functionality and enables QoS sessions located in different subnets. Unlike UPnP it relies on parameterized rather than prioritized traffic descriptions, and thus allows for more accurate and efficient traffic handling. To our knowledge this is one of very few approaches that addresses end-to-end QoS issues in SOAs. View full abstract»

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  • Service-oriented middleware for peer-to-peer computing

    Page(s): 98 - 103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a lightweight service-oriented middleware infrastructure for supporting robust and efficient peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. This middleware uses a community of proxy agents (located in some peers) which cooperate among themselves to offer efficient data sharing and download operations across the P2P network. Our proposed framework provides in-grained quality of service (QoS) support for satisfying a wide-range of application-level performance requirements, which is especially critical for emerging real-time P2P services. The proxy agents operate with flexible policies for managing an adaptive distributed storage system. This smart P2P infrastructure support delivers interoperable and reliable services to provide synchronous and asynchronous exchange of data and remote procedure calls (RPC) among concurrent peer-to-peer applications. View full abstract»

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  • Trustworthy service selection and composition - reducing the entropy of service-oriented Web

    Page(s): 104 - 109
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    Current e-service selection relies upon service registries to make recommendations. It is almost impossible to capture and make use of valuable personal service evaluations, e-service composition on the other hand employs intelligent planning for composition plan generation, which fails to scale in a large open environment such as the Web. In this paper, we consider trust evaluation and propagation as the fundamental driving force for service selection and composition, and proposed a framework that will facilitate the growth and evolution of a service-oriented network into a self-organised trustworthy virtual collaboration environment. Viewing a service-oriented network (Grid or Web) as an ecosystem, this framework is based on personalised service recommendation, social network analysis and emergent intelligence. View full abstract»

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  • OPENDIR: an open distributed service directory

    Page(s): 110 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel Internet-scale service directory based on the CHORD distributed hash table data structure. Our directory allows the distributed maintenance of a semantic index of services and aim at facilitating the creation of an open and fair service marketplace. In this competitive context, we explore a solution for secure routing in CHORD, which normally operate under the assumptions that all peers cooperate for the common good. Our modifications to the CHORD routing algorithm provide a probabilistic lower bound of secure message routing guarantee of secure message routing in competitive and rational environments such as a business market place. Through simulations, we show that the proposed algorithm provide a significant improvement over the standard CHORD algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Unified service-oriented architecture for federated and locally distributed CAMX publish/subscribe middleware

    Page(s): 117 - 122
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    CAMX (computer aided manufacturing using XML) production systems are built on message-oriented middleware frameworks, offering standards-based communication among machines and control software applications. CAMX frameworks implement publish/subscribe of XML messages through an entity called the message broker (MSB), which provides the messaging service using a SOAP interface. A challenge for MSB-based systems is that they must scale to handle large volumes of messaging traffic, characteristic of information-intensive manufacturing systems. This paper firstly tackles this challenge by presenting an architecture for creating locally distributed MSB clusters, which increase the capacity of the framework by distributing the load among several processing units. This centralized approach is complementary to a previously presented architecture for federated message broker nodes. A unified architecture is subsequently presented that enhances federated frameworks by enabling dynamically increasing the capacity of a node by adding new computational resources and forming locally distributed MSB clusters. Service-oriented architecture is used to provide a uniform interface for distributed MSB elements, whether federated or locally distributed. The service-oriented approach is also used to dynamically discover resources and invoke the configuration and messaging services provided by system components. View full abstract»

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  • Integrative approach of Web services and universal plug and play within an AV scenario

    Page(s): 123 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2783 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The increase of networking capabilities even of small devices leads to a rising demand for distributed applications, for which seamless interoperability between devices and applications is essential. As a basis for the required and emerging middleware, service oriented architectures (SOA) have become the dominant design paradigm. In the field of embedded, mostly home used devices, universal plug and play (UPnP) can be regarded as an early SOA standard, that has gained momentum and is supported by more and more products. A more advanced suite of SOA standards is known as Web services (WS), that were originally developed from the needs for interoperability in commercial communications between enterprises. In the SIRENA funded project, Web services have been selected as basis for device oriented middleware in several fields like industrial, telecommunications, automotive and home devices. In the latter, the rising availability of UPnP demands an integrative approach for advanced solutions in a distributed audio-video environment with a large number of devices and distributed applications. The paper highlights some UPnP issues and WS characteristics, proposes practical rules for proper interface design of device related service oriented architectures, and finally describes the integrative solution for an advanced media replication service based on Web services and UPnP devices. View full abstract»

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