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Human Factors and Power Plants, 1992., Conference Record for 1992 IEEE Fifth Conference on

Date 7-11 June 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 103
  • Human factors: one of the key issues for safer nuclear plants

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 564 - 569
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    Measures undertaken by Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL) to redefine the role of the nuclear power plant operator in times of emergency are discussed. The ENEL approach to the human factors issue is outlined. The regulatory limits for external release are to be met without relying on any operator action during a grace period of 72 hours after an accident initiation. Operators are to be considered as 'intelligent supervisors' rather than 'fast actuators', even if the execution of appropriate actions is not precluded. ENEL is also considering the addition of an overall plant computerized system for future plants, able to maintain under strict control all maintenance activities (preventive, predictive, and corrective), in order to greatly reduce error probability both in the preparation and in the execution phase.<> View full abstract»

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  • Application of the human factors engineering to the main control room design for 300 MW NPP

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 553 - 563
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    The author discusses human factors engineering as applied to main nuclear power plant (NPP) control room design, including the design principles, control room layout, control and information equipment, environment conditions, communications system, etc. The main control room for a new 300 MW NPP will be modified and improved on the basis of the Qinshan 300 MW NPP design.<> View full abstract»

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  • Performance of nuclear power plant or automated system depends on operator's availability

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 548 - 552
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    The levels of operator cognitive and sensomotor availability are measured during normal nuclear plant operation at full power four times a day. The time distribution of the average production level is a system performance indicator. Mathematical models of the connection between system performance and human availability have been developed. The level of operator real availability depends on the work complexity. The effectiveness of rule- and skill-based behavior is determined by the level of sensomotor availability. The effectiveness of knowledge-based behavior is determined by the level of cognitive capacity. The mathematical model explains the impact of human availability and behavior on system performance. Organizational analysis determines possible organizational paths for increasing human availability in everyday operational situations.<> View full abstract»

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  • Realisation of the integrated control room concept ISACS

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 543 - 547
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    The concept of an Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS) has been developed into a first prototype, ISACS-1. ISACS-1 covers the whole interface between the process and the operator, and this interface is fully computerized. A large number of computerized operator support systems (COSSs) are included in ISACS, assisting in functions like disturbance detection, diagnosis and prognosis, identification of relevant actions, and implementation of procedures. An information coordinator in ISACS (the Intelligent Coordinator (IC)) observes the information received from the process and the COSSs, generates new high-level information, and structures and gives priority to information to be presented to the operator. ISACS-1 is subject to extensive evaluation, including large-scale operator experiments. The goal is to demonstrate how computer technology can efficiently be used to improve the operational safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants.<> View full abstract»

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  • Human factors research in the nuclear power field in Finland

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 537 - 542
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    Research in the field of human factors in the Finnish nuclear industry was started more than 15 years ago. Research efforts are directed towards supporting probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies of the operational plants, planning of operator training and defining the cognitive content of operational tasks. A survey of research done in Finland, together with an account of studies of organizational performance and the development of personnel expertise in the Finnish nuclear power plants, is given. Specific topics include modeling the human in PSA studies, issues on organization, management and personnel expertise, and work to define the characteristic features of manager and personnel work orientation.<> View full abstract»

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  • Human factors in the Canadian nuclear industry-application and research

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 532 - 536
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    An overview of the history, current activities, and future directions of human factors in Canada's nuclear power industry is given. A brief profile of the operating nuclear power plants in Canada and their basic characteristics is provided. The history of human factors participation in the nuclear power industry is outlined, and some of the activities and ongoing developments that are most significant are described. Human factors is acquiring increased importance and a wider recognition of its role in the design, licensing, and operation of nuclear plants.<> View full abstract»

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  • Human factors applications to emergency operating procedures in Mexico

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 528 - 531
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    The applications of human factors engineering to the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Mexico are presented. Human factors were considered for the development, validation, implementation, and training of the Laguna Verde EOPs. During the Laguna Verde probabilistic risk assessment, experience was acquired in the area of EOPs. This led to updating and improving the EOPs for the plant; these were validated and installed in the control room and simulator. An EOP training tool has been developed. To further aid the operator in the control room, the Mexican Electric Utility (CFE) will install an integrated computer system. Human factors work is being performed to aid in the determination of the locations of the equipment and the furniture design for the control room.<> View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing cognitive errors using a dynamic crew-simulation model

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 520 - 526
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    The analysis of human errors in a human reliability analysis requires the consideration of the context for human behavior. By simulating the evolution of the human-machine system, the crew model dynamically treats the behavior of the human operators within the context of an evolving plant response. The implemented model treats the evolution of the system of operating crew and plant in steam generator tube rupture scenarios. The treatment of cognitive errors in this implementation and in a model being developed within this simulation framework is discussed. The work in progress extends the model to generalize the response of the crews and emphasizes modeling the manner in which errors arise generally in cognitive processes rather than simulating situation-specific errors.<> View full abstract»

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  • Some applications of full scope plant simulators

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 513 - 519
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    A number of applications of full scope nuclear plant simulators are discussed. The authors suggest that in addition to training, simulators can be used for design and installation of control systems purposes, for testing operator aids, collecting data for engineering and licensing usage and for various research topics. These applications enhance the usefulness of simulators. However, the economic use of the simulators for these purposes depends on having an automatic data collection and analysis system. The use of the simulator for these purposes can help unite the various departments of a utility such as operations, training, engineering, probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) group, and research in an appreciation of each department's expertise and needs.<> View full abstract»

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  • Use of simulator data on operator response times to support revision of a design standard

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 505 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The approach, data and results of re-evaluation of the simulator data collected during the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program to support revision of the American Nuclear Safety ANS-58.8 standard are described. The results of some simulator data analysis in the context of the ANS-58.8 standard for PWR and BWR plants are provided. The new data was collected automatically at the plant simulators using the EPRI-sponsored Operator Reliability Assessment Systems (OPERAS) to complement the ORE data. Operator response time data have been compiled and analyzed in the context of the two time delays TT/sub 1/ (Time Test 1) and TT/sub 2/ (Time Test 2) as defined in the ANS-58.8 standard. Results of the statistical analyses of data are presented for both PWRs and BWRs. Additionally, recommendations on potential modifications to the TT/sub 1/ and TT/sub 2/ definitions are made.<> View full abstract»

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  • A study of the feasibility of a human factors regulatory research facility-a status report

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 503 - 504
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    The status of a study to investigate the feasibility of a human factors regulatory research facility for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. The primary objectives are to examine the availability and capabilities of existing research facilities to support the current and expected human factors to research needs and to determine supplemental or new facilities which may be required. An initial literature review, list of research needs, facility listing, and subject matter panel (SMEP) meeting have been accomplished.<> View full abstract»

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  • Safety and a systems approach to training

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 499 - 501
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    In the past, research efforts have been aimed at finding specific relationships between training and safety. Such efforts have attempted to quantify the effects of training on safety. The approach presented by the author is not quantitative. This approach is qualitative and uses aspects of a systematic process already in place to emphasize areas where changes can result in improved training and performance and, as a result, improved safety in the nuclear industry.<> View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing the training of cognitive skills for improved human reliability: lessons learned from the cognitive environment simulation project

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 496 - 498
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    The authors have been involved in a project to model the cognitive activities that underlie operator intention formation during complex nuclear power plant emergencies. The project has involved observation of crew performance in simulated emergencies and development of a computer simulation of operator cognitive performance on the same events. The results of the research point to a number of cognitive skills that are important in handling complex multifault events of the sort that often arise in actual incidents. These cognitive skills are summarized, and an approach to developing training scenarios to enhance these skills and improve human reliability is suggested.<> View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives on training relative to standardized guidance documents

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 492 - 495
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    A multipurpose review plan, or part of a review plan, related primarily to training is reviewed. Issues pertaining to the organization and content of a hypothetical guidance document on nuclear power plant training are discussed. While a review plan is oriented toward the review process, a guidance document can be used for various purposes, which are defined by the issuing organization.<> View full abstract»

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  • Measures of effectiveness for NPP training programs using subject matter experts

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 488 - 491
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    Deciding whether training is done well or poorly depends on a definition of effectiveness. Many simple or obvious definitions turn out to be misleading or unhelpful. In a project for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a measure of training effectiveness was formulated that reflects the way some NRC and industry practitioners assess training effectiveness. The measure is systemic and complex, is stated in the language of the industry, and can be applied in the field. The training effectiveness measure is recommended as an aid in the evaluation and improvement of training programs.<> View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of senior management for human factors issues: quantitative survey data

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 482 - 487
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    The author describes a survey-based technique that measures and generates comparative human factors data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. As a result of an analysis of data from over 2700 employees across several industries, several key variables are determined to be significantly related to accidents in the work place. After describing a sample application of the Human Systems Reliability Survey, several proven techniques to successfully integrate human factors programs within organizations are highlighted.<> View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of American organizations on human factors-a personal experience

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 479 - 481
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    Ten absolutes for successfully establishing and sustaining a human factors program in contemporary American organizations, and especially in Federal government agencies, are proposed. These absolutes include: knowledge of what human factors is and what it is capable of achieving as a discipline; communicable goals and a vision for achieving those goals; and the use of public forums for negotiating the role of human factors within the organization and as an external resource for performing that role. It is concluded that these absolutes can help enhance the promise of human factors, and build on that promise into the next century.<> View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of senior management for human factors issues: a personal experience

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 477 - 478
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    A series of circumstances that caused management to become concerned enough to begin to look at human factors issues that could affect nuclear power plant safety and reliability are described. Three major circumstances that caught the attention of management are reported. Initiatives taken and resultant outcomes are also discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Cultivating management awareness of human performance issues

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 474 - 476
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    The thesis that the culture of an organization can have such a strong impact on people's behavior that it could affect the safe operation of the nuclear power plant is examined. The authors' specific experience related to this topic is reported. 'Milepost marker' actions which were used to cultivate management awareness of human performance issues are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The safety envelope: managing the safety culture

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 471 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The commercial nuclear industry, the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, and the DOE nuclear complex have used various models to operate and manage complex nuclear facilities in a safe manner. These models have focused primarily on operating parameters and design control. Using the idea of a safety envelope, the authors describe a new model that depicts the interrelationship of these and many other factors that contribute to nuclear safety. Management of nuclear facilities can use this model to establish and maintain a safety culture.<> View full abstract»

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  • Integrating HRA into decision support systems: a new frontier?

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 467 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The potential contribution of human reliability analysis (HRA) to system operability, safety, and design must not remain the exclusive domain of the nuclear power industry. Likewise, the skills to conduct such analyses should not remain with only a few highly specialized human factors practitioners. Rather, the methodologies, concepts, and information incorporated in HRAs, must be made available to operations and engineering personnel working in highly diverse industrial settings. Two challenges face the HRA practitioners: how to incorporate HRA concepts and methodologies into decision support systems that can proactively advise and forewarn operations personnel of error-prone situations, and how to incorporate HRA findings and methodologies into the initial design of a system.<> View full abstract»

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  • The evaluation of crew factors in aircrew team performance

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 461 - 466
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    The author examines the role of crew performance in the overall context of team performance and flight safety. The concept of cockpit resource management (CRM) is discussed, together with that of line-oriented flight training. Techniques for the enhancement of team performance as derived from research are reported. These include the effects of automation on cockpit resource management and the use of an integrated research approach. CRM curriculum topics are noted, the implementation and integration of CRM is discussed, and the measuring of CRM effectiveness is described.<> View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive inspection: human factors is still the key

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 458 - 460
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    The importance of nondestructive inspection (NDI) to safety in the schedule airline industry is discussed. The immediate human factors need in NDI is for better understanding of the specifics of the NDI inspector's job. Once understanding has been gained on the tasks of and methodology employed by NDI inspectors, it is a relatively straight-forward task to determine how their jobs could be better performed. The author suggests that procedures, training, job environment, management and organizational factors, and skills maintenance are all needed to optimize NDI performance.<> View full abstract»

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  • Beyond the group: enhancing team training effectiveness

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 454 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Three organizational factors are considered that can enhance team training effectiveness: culture; leadership; and performance appraisal systems. How the content of team training is affected by changes in team membership is described. Recommendations include greater emphasis on the examination of organizational factors in needs assessments to ensure optimal training. The authors explain that organizational factors should be compatible with the team training in order to enhance its effectiveness.<> View full abstract»

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  • Human reliability assessment and enhancement during outages

    Publication Year: 1992
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    Summary form only given. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is involved in a program to develop state-of-the-art tools and technology to support outage planning and control and for the assessment and reduction of risk during nuclear power station outages. As part of this program, an effort is underway to reduce human error and its impact during outages. A review of past events shows that more than fifty percent are caused by or involve human-system interaction related deficiencies. Some key factors contributing to the human error during outages include: (1) dynamic changes in plant system configuration; (2) reduced availability of safety systems and instrumentation to plant operators due to maintenance; (3) increased stress due to schedule constraints and large number of human activities to be performed; and (4) lack of technical specifications and procedural guidance. Some major elements of the EPRI human reliability enhancement efforts during outages are reported.<> View full abstract»

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