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Human Factors and Power Plants, 1992., Conference Record for 1992 IEEE Fifth Conference on

Date 7-11 June 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 103
  • Human factors: one of the key issues for safer nuclear plants

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):564 - 569
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (519 KB)

    Measures undertaken by Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (ENEL) to redefine the role of the nuclear power plant operator in times of emergency are discussed. The ENEL approach to the human factors issue is outlined. The regulatory limits for external release are to be met without relying on any operator action during a grace period of 72 hours after an accident initiation. Operators are to be... View full abstract»

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  • Application of the human factors engineering to the main control room design for 300 MW NPP

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):553 - 563
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)

    The author discusses human factors engineering as applied to main nuclear power plant (NPP) control room design, including the design principles, control room layout, control and information equipment, environment conditions, communications system, etc. The main control room for a new 300 MW NPP will be modified and improved on the basis of the Qinshan 300 MW NPP design.<> View full abstract»

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  • Performance of nuclear power plant or automated system depends on operator's availability

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):548 - 552
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB)

    The levels of operator cognitive and sensomotor availability are measured during normal nuclear plant operation at full power four times a day. The time distribution of the average production level is a system performance indicator. Mathematical models of the connection between system performance and human availability have been developed. The level of operator real availability depends on the wor... View full abstract»

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  • Realisation of the integrated control room concept ISACS

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):543 - 547
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    The concept of an Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS) has been developed into a first prototype, ISACS-1. ISACS-1 covers the whole interface between the process and the operator, and this interface is fully computerized. A large number of computerized operator support systems (COSSs) are included in ISACS, assisting in functions like disturbance detection, diagnosis and prognosis, i... View full abstract»

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  • Human factors research in the nuclear power field in Finland

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):537 - 542
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    Research in the field of human factors in the Finnish nuclear industry was started more than 15 years ago. Research efforts are directed towards supporting probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies of the operational plants, planning of operator training and defining the cognitive content of operational tasks. A survey of research done in Finland, together with an account of studies of organiz... View full abstract»

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  • Human factors in the Canadian nuclear industry-application and research

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):532 - 536
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB)

    An overview of the history, current activities, and future directions of human factors in Canada's nuclear power industry is given. A brief profile of the operating nuclear power plants in Canada and their basic characteristics is provided. The history of human factors participation in the nuclear power industry is outlined, and some of the activities and ongoing developments that are most signifi... View full abstract»

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  • Human factors applications to emergency operating procedures in Mexico

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):528 - 531
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB)

    The applications of human factors engineering to the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Mexico are presented. Human factors were considered for the development, validation, implementation, and training of the Laguna Verde EOPs. During the Laguna Verde probabilistic risk assessment, experience was acquired in the area of EOPs. This led to updating and i... View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing cognitive errors using a dynamic crew-simulation model

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):520 - 526
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB)

    The analysis of human errors in a human reliability analysis requires the consideration of the context for human behavior. By simulating the evolution of the human-machine system, the crew model dynamically treats the behavior of the human operators within the context of an evolving plant response. The implemented model treats the evolution of the system of operating crew and plant in steam genera... View full abstract»

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  • Some applications of full scope plant simulators

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):513 - 519
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB)

    A number of applications of full scope nuclear plant simulators are discussed. The authors suggest that in addition to training, simulators can be used for design and installation of control systems purposes, for testing operator aids, collecting data for engineering and licensing usage and for various research topics. These applications enhance the usefulness of simulators. However, the economic ... View full abstract»

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  • Use of simulator data on operator response times to support revision of a design standard

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):505 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)

    The approach, data and results of re-evaluation of the simulator data collected during the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program to support revision of the American Nuclear Safety ANS-58.8 standard are described. The results of some simulator data analysis in the context of the ANS-58.8 standard for PWR and BWR plants are provided. The ne... View full abstract»

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  • A study of the feasibility of a human factors regulatory research facility-a status report

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):503 - 504
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)

    The status of a study to investigate the feasibility of a human factors regulatory research facility for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. The primary objectives are to examine the availability and capabilities of existing research facilities to support the current and expected human factors to research needs and to determine supplemental or new facilities which may be requi... View full abstract»

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  • Safety and a systems approach to training

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):499 - 501
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (179 KB)

    In the past, research efforts have been aimed at finding specific relationships between training and safety. Such efforts have attempted to quantify the effects of training on safety. The approach presented by the author is not quantitative. This approach is qualitative and uses aspects of a systematic process already in place to emphasize areas where changes can result in improved training and pe... View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing the training of cognitive skills for improved human reliability: lessons learned from the cognitive environment simulation project

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):496 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB)

    The authors have been involved in a project to model the cognitive activities that underlie operator intention formation during complex nuclear power plant emergencies. The project has involved observation of crew performance in simulated emergencies and development of a computer simulation of operator cognitive performance on the same events. The results of the research point to a number of cogni... View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives on training relative to standardized guidance documents

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):492 - 495
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    A multipurpose review plan, or part of a review plan, related primarily to training is reviewed. Issues pertaining to the organization and content of a hypothetical guidance document on nuclear power plant training are discussed. While a review plan is oriented toward the review process, a guidance document can be used for various purposes, which are defined by the issuing organization.<> View full abstract»

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  • Measures of effectiveness for NPP training programs using subject matter experts

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):488 - 491
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB)

    Deciding whether training is done well or poorly depends on a definition of effectiveness. Many simple or obvious definitions turn out to be misleading or unhelpful. In a project for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a measure of training effectiveness was formulated that reflects the way some NRC and industry practitioners assess training effectiveness. The measure is systemic and complex,... View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of senior management for human factors issues: quantitative survey data

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):482 - 487
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB)

    The author describes a survey-based technique that measures and generates comparative human factors data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. As a result of an analysis of data from over 2700 employees across several industries, several key variables are determined to be significantly related to accidents in the work pl... View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of American organizations on human factors-a personal experience

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):479 - 481
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)

    Ten absolutes for successfully establishing and sustaining a human factors program in contemporary American organizations, and especially in Federal government agencies, are proposed. These absolutes include: knowledge of what human factors is and what it is capable of achieving as a discipline; communicable goals and a vision for achieving those goals; and the use of public forums for negotiating... View full abstract»

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  • Getting the attention of senior management for human factors issues: a personal experience

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):477 - 478
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB)

    A series of circumstances that caused management to become concerned enough to begin to look at human factors issues that could affect nuclear power plant safety and reliability are described. Three major circumstances that caught the attention of management are reported. Initiatives taken and resultant outcomes are also discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • Cultivating management awareness of human performance issues

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):474 - 476
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)

    The thesis that the culture of an organization can have such a strong impact on people's behavior that it could affect the safe operation of the nuclear power plant is examined. The authors' specific experience related to this topic is reported. 'Milepost marker' actions which were used to cultivate management awareness of human performance issues are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The safety envelope: managing the safety culture

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):471 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB)

    The commercial nuclear industry, the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, and the DOE nuclear complex have used various models to operate and manage complex nuclear facilities in a safe manner. These models have focused primarily on operating parameters and design control. Using the idea of a safety envelope, the authors describe a new model that depicts the interrelationship of these and many oth... View full abstract»

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  • Integrating HRA into decision support systems: a new frontier?

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):467 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB)

    The potential contribution of human reliability analysis (HRA) to system operability, safety, and design must not remain the exclusive domain of the nuclear power industry. Likewise, the skills to conduct such analyses should not remain with only a few highly specialized human factors practitioners. Rather, the methodologies, concepts, and information incorporated in HRAs, must be made available t... View full abstract»

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  • The evaluation of crew factors in aircrew team performance

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):461 - 466
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (577 KB)

    The author examines the role of crew performance in the overall context of team performance and flight safety. The concept of cockpit resource management (CRM) is discussed, together with that of line-oriented flight training. Techniques for the enhancement of team performance as derived from research are reported. These include the effects of automation on cockpit resource management and the use ... View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive inspection: human factors is still the key

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):458 - 460
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB)

    The importance of nondestructive inspection (NDI) to safety in the schedule airline industry is discussed. The immediate human factors need in NDI is for better understanding of the specifics of the NDI inspector's job. Once understanding has been gained on the tasks of and methodology employed by NDI inspectors, it is a relatively straight-forward task to determine how their jobs could be better ... View full abstract»

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  • Beyond the group: enhancing team training effectiveness

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):454 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB)

    Three organizational factors are considered that can enhance team training effectiveness: culture; leadership; and performance appraisal systems. How the content of team training is affected by changes in team membership is described. Recommendations include greater emphasis on the examination of organizational factors in needs assessments to ensure optimal training. The authors explain that organ... View full abstract»

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  • Human reliability assessment and enhancement during outages

    Publication Year: 1992
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (82 KB)

    Summary form only given. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is involved in a program to develop state-of-the-art tools and technology to support outage planning and control and for the assessment and reduction of risk during nuclear power station outages. As part of this program, an effort is underway to reduce human error and its impact during outages. A review of past events shows that... View full abstract»

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