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Haptic Audio Visual Environments and their Applications, 2005. IEEE International Workshop on

Date 1-2 Oct. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • A portable system to build 3D models of cultural heritage and to allow their exploration by blind people

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    This paper addresses the increasing attention to the preservation and fruition of cultural heritage via the acquisition of 3D digital models. A special care is also paid to enable these treasures to be accessed by people with different abilities. The latter problem can benefit from haptic interfaces that allow the exploration of artistic objects that cannot be physically touched. A portable low-cost system to rapidly build 3D models and to allow their haptic exploration is presented. The 3D model construction module builds VRML models of the scene that can be rendered using proper tools. VRML models are imported into the haptic module to extend the access to blind people. The system enables the dynamical change of the relative size between the virtual fingertips and the objects to simulate a multi-resolution perception. Furthermore, it supports the use of guided paths in the kinesthetic exploration of the object. The exploration of specific regions of the model can be enhanced by textual information provided to the user by text-to-speech tools. The validation of the proposed portable haptic system has been done on the "Palazzo del Sedile", of the XII century, located in Bitetto in the south of Italy. View full abstract»

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  • The research on sensor and data fusion in virtual environment

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    With the development of virtual reality and virtual prototype technology, the vehicle virtual test system is put forward and possesses wide application perspective. This paper presents an overview of the vehicle virtual test system and focuses on sensor and data fusion model and algorithm, which plays an important role in vehicle virtual test. Three modes of fusion function are proposed to fuse and process various data effectively. The concept and structure of data soft-fusion, data hard-fusion and hybrid fusion are given, as well as an interactive data fusion model oriented to the feature level. Furthermore, as an observer for the nonlinear model, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is adopted to evaluate and monitor the virtual vehicle state (speed, acceleration, position, etc) and virtual test information. And also, we modified the degree of membership algorithm in fuzzy clustering as data association algorithm. By theoretic analysis, the proposed fusion model and algorithms in VE are reasonable. At the end of this paper, we conclude with discussion of the future studies on the sensor fusion model and algorithm in VE. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent and intuitive interface for construction of 3D composite objects

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    This paper treats an intelligent and intuitive interface for the construction of 3D composite objects. The manual construction of 3D composite objects takes a long time because 3D objects have six degrees of freedom (DOF) and are difficult to be controlled by using a standard 2D input device, e.g., a mouse device. To deal with this problem, the authors have already proposed an automatic 3D object layout system based on contact constraints. In this paper, the authors propose manipulation guide functionality based on the same contact constraints for the construction of 3D composite objects. Since this manipulation guide functionality works with DeMoCa, a video based hand motion tracking and hand posture recognition system already proposed by the same authors, it provides an intuitive interface. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of network delay on ensemble application

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    Haptic device has been brought to public attention. We are developing networked music ensemble system with haptic devices. Pairs of user connected network play drums. In such systems, the impairment of network QoS such as network delay or packet loss cause degradation of collaboration performance among users. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of network delay and to examine the effect of distributed synchronization and media synchronization, and to investigate role of haptics for this application in such haptic audio communication system. View full abstract»

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  • Prop-based haptic interaction with co-location and immersion: an automotive application

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    Most research on 3D user interfaces aims at providing only a single sensory modality. One challenge is to integrate several sensory modalities into a seamless system while preserving each modality's immersion and performance factors. This paper concerns manipulation tasks and proposes a visuo-haptic system integrating immersive visualization, tactile force and tactile feedback with co-location. An industrial application is presented. View full abstract»

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  • A cataract tele-surgery training application in a hapto-visual collaborative environment running over the CANARIE photonic network

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    We discuss our efforts in developing a hapto-visual application that medical students can use to gain valuable experience in performing eye cataract surgery on a human. Our application supports three scenarios: an instructor and a trainee in geographically distant locations interacting in real-time having the instructor tele-mentor the trainee using haptic devices at both ends; a trainee learning the surgical procedure by means of perceptual cues (e.g. projective lighting); and finally, a trainee performing the surgery without any guidance. Collaboration and remote interaction is done over the CANARIE CA*net4 photonic network. Organizationally, project development responsibilities are split into four functional components: the GUI, the graphic rendering, the haptic rendering (which includes collision detection and collision response by means of a physics engine), and networking. In this paper, we discuss our work on the four components, comment on the challenges we are facing and expect to face, and also discuss remaining work. View full abstract»

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  • The touch and feel in minimally invasive surgery

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    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) characterizes a sophisticated operation technique in which long instruments are inserted into the patient through small incisions. Though providing crucial benefits compared to open surgery (i.e. reduced tissue traumatization) it is also faced with a number of disadvantages. One of the major problems is that the operating tissue cannot be palpated any more and that appearing contact forces can hardly be sensed. To overcome some of the drawbacks minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS) constitutes a promising approach. Due to the remote control the operating instruments can be equipped with miniaturized force/torque sensors and thus the appearing contact forces can be displayed to the surgeon. As the development of sensorized surgical devices is challenging there are no commercially available robotic systems which provide kinesthetic feedback currently. In this work, a prototypical force reflecting MIRS system is presented and the importance of kinesthetic feedback is evaluated empirically. Based on the results of a psychophysical pre-experiment, a representative dissection task was realized which was accomplished by 25 surgeons. The study revealed that robot assisted surgery is actually suited to reduce unintentional injuries when appropriate force feedback is available, although it has to be mentioned that the operating time increased compared to a manual intervention. Further interesting insights were gained by a qualitative video analysis which revealed that robotic surgery affords acquisition instead of manual surgical skill transfer. Especially experienced surgeons have to get accustomed to a more continuous working style. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustical diffraction modeling utilizing the Huygens-Fresnel principle

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    This paper describes the application of the Huygens-Fresnel principle to acoustical diffraction modeling. A theoretical formulation of the optics-based Huygens-Fresnel principle is presented followed by a discussion regarding the modifications necessary to apply the Huygens-Fresnel principle to acoustical diffraction modeling. Experimental results indicate the method is capable of modeling acoustical diffraction phenomena in a simple and efficient manner, making it attractive for interactive virtual environments. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial and natural force constraints in haptic-aided path planning

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    The paper presents novel extensions of the notion of artificial and natural constraints which have been used in force and position control of robotic devices to the new paradigm of haptic-aided design. In particular, the preliminary results of this paper show how the user can interact with the virtual CAD environment in solving various path planning problems where traditional approaches may fail in converging to a solution. Here, the representations of objects are mapped into various force fields where the user can define a path from an initial configuration to a goal configuration. A novel methodology is also proposed where the linear force fields combined with the geometrical constraints can be used to guide the user to accomplish a desired spatial rotation of the object in the task space. This is important in most cases where the haptic devices are only capable in generating linear force fields as opposed to full six degrees of freedom fields. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive haptic guidance software module for I-TOUCH: example through a handwriting teaching simulation and a 3D maze

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    This paper introduces a new method for virtual reality teaching and its implementation into the I-TOUCH framework. From a thorough analysis of previous works dealing with virtual training, we developed a four steps method to be used for teaching and training. The I-TOUCH framework has been designed in order to quickly prototype computer haptic research and subsequently generate actual industry interactive simulations. Adding a progressively adapting guidance software module, the software can also be used to teach and train people on skill manipulation, where the use of haptic feedback increases learning. Thus, we decided to conceive a replay mode where four different haptic displays were possible: from total guidance, through more or less haptic correction of the user gesture, to a simple visual mode, where the ideal motion is visually displayed. View full abstract»

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  • Image-based navigation in real environments using panoramas

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    We present a system for virtual navigation in real environments using image-based panorama rendering. Multiple overlapping images are captured using a Point Grey Ladybug camera and a single cube-aligned panorama image is generated for each capture location. Panorama locations are connected in a graph topology and registered with a 2D map for navigation. A real-time image-based viewer renders individual 360-degree panoramas using graphics hardware acceleration. Real-world navigation is performed by traversing the graph and loading new panorama images. The system contains a user-friendly interface and supports standard input and display or a head-mounted display with an inertial tracking device. View full abstract»

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  • Role of extensible physics engine in surgery simulations

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    Surgery simulations are of significant value in medical training as they provide a less costly mean of training new surgeons. The quality of a surgery simulation is defined by how realistic it is in a physical sense. These physics aspects however have little to do the high-level functionalities of the application. Most VR (virtual reality) applications use libraries called physics engine for enforcing physics laws in their virtual worlds. Although the concept of using physics engines is ideal for development of VR applications, in practice it does impose many limitations. For instance, there are many physical laws in the world, and one single physics engine cannot provide all of them. In addition, each physical law can be implemented differently; some are optimized for fast response, others are designed for maximum precision. Most existing physics engines are specialized for common applications such as gaming, robotic or flight simulations. In surgery applications, the requirements are different; therefore different physics laws are needed. In particular, laws are needed for simulating cutting and skin deformation. In addition, these laws must be enforced with a high precision level. In this paper, we discuss how xPheve was used to develop a cataract eye surgery simulation. xPheve is a physics engine that allows extension and customization of the simulation physics through development and integration of reusable law components. This paper discusses how xPheve can benefit the development of the surgery simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Comparing force magnitudes by means of vibro-tactile, auditory, and visual feedback

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    The objective of this research was to study the suitability of multi-modal sensory substitution for force-feedback. This substitution is appealing because sound force feedback requires large, heavy, and expensive equipment. In a series of experiments we investigated the substitution of force feedback in judging objects' properties related to the kinesthetic perception. "Forces" of varying strength were presented by vibro-tactile, visual, or auditory feedback, or combinations thereof. We tested the suitability of substitutes in two manipulation experiments: in the first, the participant had to judge the "weight" of cubes relative to each other; in the second, the participant had to judge the amount of force necessary to move a brick due to frictional resistance. The trials were performed using a partially immersive desktop virtual reality system and a CyberTouch data glove that provides vibro-tactile feedback. Results show that just one substitute is sufficient to successfully complete the task. However, the task performance, in terms of correct discrimination and time, improved when a combination of substituting stimuli was presented. View full abstract»

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  • On-screen laser spot detection for large display interaction

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    Laser pointer based interfaces present an interesting alternative for interaction with large displays such as those provided by video projection systems. In order to operate correctly, such systems need to quickly and reliably detect the on-screen laser spot generated by the pointer. This paper describes a fast algorithm for real-time laser spot tracking and presents some performance results. View full abstract»

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  • Lifted wavelet-based image dataset compression with column random access for image-based virtual environment navigation

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    A lifted wavelet-based compression scheme with effective image-column random access for coding image datasets is proposed. This image dataset compression scheme is based on the approach of a lifted wavelet transform combined with embedded block entropy coding. This approach is adapted to compressing the image datasets used for image-based virtual environment navigation and facilitating a column random access mechanism. A specific data structure is designed to achieve efficient compression and accommodate column random access. The code stream syntax is constructed to efficiently assemble bit streams corresponding to the designed data structure. The two-level index tables in the code stream are used to assist random access. This image dataset compression scheme features a proper compromise between the coding efficiency and the random access flexibility, and thus ensures fast interactive image rendering. It reduces the decoding delay, simplifies the implementation of a random access mechanism and easily facilitates real-time image decoding. Experimental results of the software implementation of this image dataset compression scheme show its superior coding performance over the standard JPEG and JPEG 2000 schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling haptic devices using a rule-based expert system

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    Modelling physical systems is one of the main technical challenges in the field of control systems and haptic devices. In this work, a two part methodology is proposed that generates a model which employs qualitative reasoning to encapsulate nonlinear effects that are often approximated as linear processes. We utilize fuzzy set theory to implement a rule-base that has been constructed from both conventional and expert knowledge to model the nonlinear damping behaviour of the PHANToM™ haptic device. Our methodology is used to produce an estimate of the nonlinear parameters in a mathematical model a PHANToM™ haptic device integrated with a rate feedback controller. Most estimation methods approximate damping factors using a linear approximation based on experimental data. In the first part of our method, a rule-based expert system is developed based on constant parameters which have been estimated from experimental data (linear model) and the system parameters are tuned for multiple operating regions. The second part of our method develops an expert system using constant parameters based on expert knowledge. Several system responses are examined to show the ability of our technique to capture a variety of conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Software structure design for a haptic-based medical examination system

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    This paper presents a novel approach to software structure design of a haptic-based medical examination simulator. The proposed software is implemented in a fully object-oriented structure that provides real-time interaction with a PHANToM™ haptic device, as a diagnostic tool for medical experts. The software allows radiology experts to visualize, display and interact with the graphical model of a patient's pre-scanned organ or tissue. The expert is also able to re-slice through pre-registered model data sets and view the 2D reslice images in different modalities simultaneously. The haptic interface guarantees position correspondence between the operator's hand and a virtual probe. Thus the simulated procedure emulates actual examinations condition in clinic. Our preliminary human factors study at Kingston General Hospital with radiology residents have demonstrated the significant potential of the developed software for scientific and commercial applications. View full abstract»

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  • Haptic-auditory distance cues in virtual environments: exploring adjustable parameters for enhancing experience

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    This paper investigates two subjective responses to a recorded percussive musical instrument sound displayed in a haptic-auditory virtual environment; the responses were apparent motion towards (AMT) and powerfulness. The system employed a whole-body actuator and full-range multichannel stereophonic sound compliant with ITU standards. AMT was experienced when whole-body vibratory components were slightly delayed in relation to sound components. Furthermore, the recorded percussive hit was initially observed to vary in its apparent power with variation in intermodal delay values and level; participants, therefore, made ratings of powerfulness. Threshold intermodal delays for experiencing AMT were found to depend strongly upon intermodal level values, but ratings of powerfulness were found to depend primarily upon whole-body vibration levels. These results can be incorporated into a structure for control response parameters in multimodal environmental display systems incorporating sound and whole-body vibration. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic alignment and graph map building of panoramas

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    Panoramic cameras can capture a 360° view from a point providing new capabilities for multimedia, tele-presence and robotic applications. For example, virtual walk-throughs of an environment can be created from a sequence of panoramic images, where perspective views are created according to a user's position and view direction. For this and other applications, the panoramic images need to be aligned to one another and a topological or metric map created. An automatic method to achieve this would remove a lot of tedious preparations for multimedia systems and enable robotic positioning systems. This paper presents three methods to address these problems; finding the relative orientation between panoramas, using the essential matrix is created to determine the relative rotation and translation direction, and an image search based algorithm to detect when the camera path crosses over itself for creating a topological map. The SIFT feature detector is used to find correspondences between panoramic images. Experimental results are shown for determining the rotation and cross-overs. View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic gesture interface for virtual environments based on hidden Markov models

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    A dynamic gesture interface for virtual environments based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) is introduced in this paper. The HMMs are employed to represent the continuous dynamic gestures, and their parameters are learned from the training data collected from the CyberGlove. To avoid the gesture spotting problem, we employed the standard deviation of the angle variation for each finger joint to describe the dynamic characters of the gestures. A prototype which applies 3 different dynamic gestures to control the rotation directions of a 3D cube is implemented to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • XML-based representation of haptic information

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    The ongoing research on haptics has produced excellent results that have paved the way to a whole new field of multimedia. Creating the sense of "touch", along with all its derivatives is very appealing indeed. Whether it is in gaming, tele-surgery simulations, rehabilitation, entertainment, or in the realm of military applications, concerned users seem to have obtained an acquired taste of this haptic world. However, the lack of haptic information representation formats is an impediment to the development of haptic applications. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to represent haptic information. Six basic categories are defined to describe the haptic application model with an explanation on why these categories and their parameters need to be defined. View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic fuzzy logic approach to adaptive HVS-based watermarking

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    A novel image watermarking algorithm is introduced that consists of an adaptive watermarking algorithm based on a human visual system (HVS) model and a dynamic fuzzy inference system (DFIS). This scheme relies on the DFIS to extract the human eye sensitivity knowledge using the HVS model. The DFIS and the HVS combined are used to adjust and select the appropriate watermark length as well as the watermark strength for each pixel in an image. The main goal of the algorithm is to provide a more robust and imperceptible watermark. The aforementioned has been implemented and tested under various attacks including image compression, cropping, additive Gaussian noise distortion, scaling, low-pass filtering, as well as collusion attacks. The results achieved demonstrate that the watermark can survive these attacks while remaining imperceptible. The primary contribution of this adaptive watermarking approach is to further enhance spread-spectrum based watermarking schemes by introducing a DFIS model that encompasses a dynamic membership function engine to accurately approximate the relationship found between all properties of the HVS. View full abstract»

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  • Participant identification in haptic systems using hidden Markov models

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    Biometric systems allow identification of individuals based on behavioral or physiological characteristics. In this paper, we explore biometric applications in access control of haptic systems. These systems produce information on human computer interaction behavior of a specific participant and could potentially be unique. This paper proposes a novel design based on hidden Markov models (HMM). Architecture is developed where each participant has an HMM model. Results are promising in that they show three out of four users identified correctly from their respective models based on the match score (MS) values. View full abstract»

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  • A robust RST invariant image watermarking method based on locally detected features

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    This paper presents a robust rotation, scaling and translation (RST) invariant image watermarking method based on locally detected features. First, the feature points are detected in the original image by using the Harris corner detection. Then, the Delaunay tessellation is created on these feature points. Watermark data are embedded and detected in each of the Delaunay triangles. The Harris corner detection is the key point in this scheme. Traditionally, the global threshold is used for the Harris corner detection. As a result, the points are concentrated on areas with rich texture information and the contrast change within the image. In this way, the locations of points are seriously affected by attacks, such as, geometrical attacks. It makes the watermark detection difficult or even impossible. In order to generate more robust feature points, we use a local threshold feature detection method, in which local thresholds are used for different parts of the target image. The feature points are almost uniformly distributed on the image. The experimental results show that this method makes feature points very robust after geometrical attacks, JPEG compression and noise addition. View full abstract»

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