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Network Protocols, 2005. ICNP 2005. 13th IEEE International Conference on

Date 6-9 Nov. 2005

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  • 13th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols

    Page(s): c1
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  • 13TH IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols - Title Page

    Page(s): i - iii
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  • 13TH IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols - Copyright

    Page(s): iv
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  • 13TH IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols - Table of contents

    Page(s): v - viii
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  • Message from the General Co-Chairs

    Page(s): ix - x
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  • Message from the Technical Committee Co-chairs

    Page(s): xi - xii
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  • Committees

    Page(s): xiii - xiv
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  • External reviewers

    Page(s): xv
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  • Expected convergence properties of BGP

    Page(s): 13 pp. - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Border gateway protocol (BGP) is the de facto standard used for interdomain routing. Since packet forwarding may not be possible until stable routes are learned, it is not only critical for BGP to converge but it is important that the convergence be rapid. The distributed and asynchronous nature of BGP in conjunction with local policies makes it difficult to analyze with respect to convergence behavior. We present a novel model which, to our knowledge, is the first one to permit analysis of convergence in the aggregate (i.e., over all message exchange orders between routers regarding route advertisements), rather than worst case behavior. We introduce the notion of probabilistic safety as requiring the probability of convergence to be 1. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition characterizing probabilistic safety that shows that probabilistic safety accommodates BGP configurations whose potential divergence stems solely from pathological message sequences. More generally, we show how to compute for any BGP configuration its probability of convergence. For probabilistically safe configurations, we present procedures for computing their expected time to converge as well as the probability distribution on their convergence times. The ability to compute these quantitative characteristics makes our work "constructive" and provides the basis for further understanding and deriving procedures for optimizing network characteristics. Finally, we simulate several network examples and verify the consistency between our analysis and the simulations View full abstract»

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  • Stable egress route selection for interdomain traffic engineering: model and analysis

    Page(s): 14 pp. - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a general model of interdomain route selection to study interdomain traffic engineering. In this model, the routing of multiple destinations can be coordinated. Thus the model can capture general traffic engineering behaviors such as load balancing and link capacity constraints. We first identify potential routing instability and inefficiency of interdomain traffic engineering. We then derive a sufficient condition to guarantee convergence. We also show that the constraints on local policies imposed by business considerations in the Internet can guarantee stability without global coordination. Using realistic Internet topology, we evaluate the extent to which routing instability of interdomain traffic engineering can happen when the constraints are violated View full abstract»

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  • On understanding of transient interdomain routing failures

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The convergence time of the interdomain routing protocol, BGP, can last as long as 30 minutes. Yet, routing behavior during BGP route convergence is poorly understood. BGP can experience transient loss of reachability during route convergence. We refer to this transient loss of reachability during route convergence as transient routing failure. Transient routing failures can lead to end-to-end forwarding failures. Furthermore, the prolonged routing failures can make deploying applications such as voice-over-IP and interactive games infeasible. In this paper, we study the extent to which transient interdomain routing failures occur in the Internet and the duration that these failures can last through both analysis and measurement. We first present a formal model that captures the transient behavior of the interdomain routing protocol. We derive sufficient conditions for and an upper bound for the duration of transient routing failures. Furthermore, we demonstrate the occurrence and duration of transient routing failures in the Internet through measurement. We find that majority of transient failures occur under the commonly applied routing policy setting, and popular and unpopular prefixes can experience transient failures. View full abstract»

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  • On the stability of rational, heterogeneous interdomain route selection

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent discovery of instability caused by the interaction of local routing policies of multiple ASes has led to extensive research on the subject. However, previous studies analyze stability under a specific route selection algorithm. In this paper, instead of studying a specific route selection algorithm, we study a general class of route selection algorithms which we call rational route selection algorithms. We present a sufficient condition to guarantee routing convergence in a heterogeneous network where each AS runs any rational route selection algorithm. Applying our general results, we study the potential instability of a network where the preference of an AS depends on not only its egress routes to the destinations but also its inbound traffic patterns (i.e., the distribution of incoming traffic from its neighbors). We show that there exist networks which will have persistent route oscillations even when the ASes strictly follow the constraints imposed by business considerations, and adopt any rational route selection algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing the yield of ExScal, a large-scale wireless sensor network experiment

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    Recent experiments have taken steps towards realizing the vision of extremely large wireless sensor networks, the largest of these being ExScal, in which we deployed about 1200 nodes over a 1.3 km by 300 m open area. Such experiments remain especially challenging because of: (a) prior observations of failure of sensor network protocols to scale, due to network faults and their spatial and temporal variability, (b) complexity of protocol interaction, (c) lack of sufficient data about faults and variability, even at smaller scales, and (d) current inadequacy of simulation and analytical tools to predict sensor network protocol behavior. In this paper, we present detailed data about faults, both anticipated and unanticipated, in ExScal. We also evaluate the impact of these faults on ExScal as well as the design principles that enabled it to satisfy its application requirements despite these faults. We describe the important lessons learnt from the ExScal experiment and suggest services and tools as a further aid to future large scale network deployments. View full abstract»

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  • Tracking targets with quality in wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 12 pp. - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tracking of moving targets has attracted more and more attention due to its importance in utilizing sensor networks for surveillance. In this paper, we consider the issue of how to track mobile targets with certain level of quality of monitoring (QoM), while conserving power. We address the target tracking problem by taking into account of both the coverage and the QoM. In particular, QoM ensures that the probability of reporting inaccurate monitoring information (such as false alarm or target miss) should be as small as possible, even in the presence of noises and signal attenuation. We also analytically whether or not the detection/observation made by a single sensor suffices to tracking the target in a reasonably populated sensor network. Our finding gives a confirmative answer and challenges the long-held paradigm that high tracking quality (low tracking error) necessarily requires high power consumption. To rigorously analyze the impact of target movement on QoM, we derive both lower and upper bounds on the number of sensors (called duty sensors) required to keep track of a moving target. Based on the analysis, we have devised a cooperative, relay-area-based scheme that determines which sensor should become the next duty sensor when the target is moving. The simulation study indicates that the number of duty sensor required in the proposed scheme is, in the worst case, approximately 1.2 times larger than the lower bound. It also indicates that a trade-off exists among QoM, the number of duty sensors required, and the load balance View full abstract»

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  • The fundamental role of hop distance in IEEE 802.11 multi-hop ad hoc networks

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    In wireless networks, it is well understood what throughput can be achieved by nodes who can hear each other (i.e. nodes within a single cell). The effects of nodes beyond the sensing range (known as hidden nodes) on a sender are complicated and difficult to analyze. Consequently, how to analytically model multi-hop ad-hoc networks, specially networks based on the popular IEEE 802.11 standards remains largely open. In a recent paper, the throughput of a particular wireless network topology (linear network with a given number of hidden nodes) has been derived analytically. In this paper, we unify previous results on single-cell models, and results characterizing different types of hidden node interference and the analysis of C. Ng et al., (2004), to derive a general solution for throughput given a linear network of arbitrary density and transmission distance between source and destination nodes. An important insight from our model is that there is a certain transmission distance, which is less than the maximum transmission distance, that optimizes throughput in such networks. This result is verified using ns-2 simulation with both single as well as multiple flows. View full abstract»

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  • Routing in ad-hoc networks with MIMO links

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    Smart antennas include a broad variety of antenna technologies ranging from the simple switched beams to the sophisticated digital adaptive arrays. While beam-forming antennas are good candidates for use in strong line of sight (LOS) environments, it is the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology that is best suited for multipath environments. In fact, the MIMO links exploit the multipath induced rich scattering to provide high spectral efficiencies. The focus of this work is to identify the various characteristics and tradeoffs of MIMO links that can be leveraged by routing layer protocols in rich multipath environments to improve their performance. To this end, we propose a routing protocol called MIR for ad-hoc networks with MIMO links, that leverages the various characteristics of MIMO links in its mechanisms to improve the network performance. We show the effectiveness of the proposed protocol by evaluating its performance through ns2 simulations for a variety of network conditions. View full abstract»

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  • MuON: epidemic based mutual anonymity

    Page(s): 11 pp. - 109
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    A mutually anonymous service hides the identity of a client from the service provider and vice-versa. Providing mutual anonymity usually requires a large number of participants. While peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are capable of recruiting a large number of participants, reliable anonymous communication in these architectures, with low bandwidth usage, still needs further investigation. This paper presents MuON, a protocol to achieve mutual anonymity in unstructured P2P networks. MuON leverages epidemic-style data dissemination to deal with the high churn (changes in system membership) characteristic of unstructured P2P networks. The results from our security analysis and simulation show that MuON provides mutual anonymity over unstructured P2P networks while maintaining predictable latencies, high reliability, and low communication overhead View full abstract»

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  • Incentives to promote availability in peer-to-peer anonymity systems

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) anonymous communication systems are vulnerable to free-riders, peers that use the system while providing little or no service to others and whose presence limits the strength of anonymity as well as the efficiency of the system. Free-riding can be addressed by building explicit incentive mechanisms into system protocols to promote two distinct aspects of cooperation among peers-compliance with the protocol specification and the availability of peers to serve others. In this paper we study the use of payments to implement an incentive mechanism that attaches a real monetary cost to low availability. Through a game theoretic analysis, we evaluate the effectiveness of such an incentive, finding that peer availability can be significantly increased through the introduction of payments under many conditions. We also demonstrate how a payment-based incentive that preserves anonymity can be implemented and integrated with a popular class of P2P anonymity systems. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting dynamic querying like flooding techniques in unstructured peer-to-peer networks

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    In unstructured peer-to-peer networks, controlled flooding aims at locating an item at the minimum message cost. Dynamic querying is a new controlled flooding technique. While it is implemented in some peer-to-peer networks, little is known about its undesirable behavior and little is known about its general usefulness in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. This paper describes the first evaluation and analysis of such techniques, and proposes novel techniques to improve them. We make three contributions. First, we find the current dynamic querying design is flawed. Although it is advantageous over the expanding ring algorithm in terms of search cost, it is much less attractive in terms of peer perceived latency, and its strict constraints on network connectivity prevent it from being widely adopted. Second, we propose an enhanced flooding technique which requires the search cost close to the minimum, reduces the search latency by more than four times, and loosens the constraints on the network connectivity. Thus, we make such techniques useful for the general unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Third, we show that our proposal requires only minor modifications to the existing search mechanisms and can be incrementally deployed in peer-to-peer networks. View full abstract»

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  • Z-ring: fast prefix routing via a low maintenance membership protocol

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce Z-ring, a fast prefix routing protocol for peer-to-peer overlay networks. Z-ring incorporates cost-efficient membership protocol to achieve fast routing with small maintenance cost. Z-ring achieves routing in logGN steps, where N is the network size and G is the size of a group that can be maintained by a membership protocol with low cost. With G=4096, it translates to one-hop routing for intranet environments (N<4096), two-hop routing for mid-scale internet applications (N<16 million), and three-hop routing for ultra-large Internet applications (N<64 billion). Z-ring maintains good routing success rate under churn and low maintenance cost even at large network size. Its modularized use of the membership protocol also makes it adaptive to dynamic and wide-range network size changes. View full abstract»

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  • Path vector face routing: geographic routing with local face information

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    Existing geographic routing algorithms depend on the planarization of the network connectivity graph for correctness, and the planarization process gives rise to a well-defined notion of "faces". In this paper, we demonstrate that we can improve routing performance by storing a small amount of local face information at each node. We present a protocol, path vector exchange (PVEX), that maintains local face information at each node efficiently, and a new geographic routing algorithm, greedy path vector face routing (GPVFR), that achieves better routing performance in terms of both path stretch and hop stretch than existing geographic routing algorithms by exploiting available local face information. Our simulations demonstrate that GPVFR/PVEX achieves significantly reduced path and hop stretch than greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) and somewhat better performance than greedy other adaptive face routing (GOAFR+) over a wide range of network topologies. The cost of this improved performance is a small amount of additional storage, and the bandwidth required for our algorithm is comparable to GPSR and GOAFR+ in quasi-static networks. View full abstract»

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  • Simple robotic routing in ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 10 pp. - 168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Position-based routing protocols in ad hoc networks combine a forwarding strategy with a recovery algorithm. The former fails when there are void regions or physical obstacles that prevent transmission. Then, the recovery algorithm is used to detour the obstacles. To explore the obstacles and find a path around them, the earlier recovery approaches construct a planar graph to avoid routing loops. Distributed algorithms that find planar graphs require accurate knowledge on the location of nodes. The number of nodes on a recovery path increases as the node density increases. Our novel recovery technique operates on a grid model of a network. Obstacles are approximated by adjacent grid elements. We adopt the right-hand rule, which is common in robotics, to follow the perimeter of the discretized obstacle. We do not construct a planar graph. The grid structure reduces the positional accuracy required for nodes, and the recovery path length is independent of the node density View full abstract»

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  • Landmark guided forwarding

    Page(s): 10 pp. - 178
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    In this paper we focus on the problems of maintaining ad hoc network connectivity in the presence of node mobility whilst providing globally efficient and robust routing. The common approach among existing wireless ad hoc routing solutions is to establish a global optimal path between a source and a destination. We argue that establishing a globally optimal path is both unreliable and unsustainable as the network diameter, traffic volume and number of nodes all increase in the presence of moderate node mobility. To address this we propose landmark guided forwarding (LGF), a protocol that provides a hybrid solution of topological and geographical routing algorithms. We demonstrate that LGF is adaptive to unstable connectivity and scalable to large networks. Our results indicate therefore that landmark guided forwarding converges much faster, scales better and adapts well within a dynamic wireless ad hoc environment in comparison to existing solutions View full abstract»

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  • Efficient hop ID based routing for sparse ad hoc networks

    Page(s): 10 pp. - 190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Routing in mobile ad hoc networks remains as a challenging problem given the limited wireless bandwidth, users' mobility and potentially large scale. Recently, there has been a thrust of research to address these problems, including on-demand routing, geographical routing, virtual coordinates, etc. In this paper, we focus on geographical routing, which was shown to achieve good scalability without flooding, but it usually requires location information and can suffer from the severe dead end problem especially in sparse networks. Specifically, we propose a new hop ID based routing protocol, which does not require any location information, yet achieves comparable performance with the shortest path routing. In addition, we design efficient algorithms for setting up the system and adapt to the node mobility quickly, and can effectively route out of dead ends. The extensive analysis and simulation show that the hop ID based routing achieves efficient routing for mobile ad hoc networks with various density, irregular topologies and obstacles View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing event distribution in publish/subscribe systems in the presence of policy-constraints and composite events

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the publish/subscribe paradigm, information is disseminated from publishers to subscribers that are interested in receiving the information. In practice, information dissemination is often restricted by policy constraints due to concerns such as security or confidentiality agreement. Meanwhile, to avoid overwhelming subscribers by the vast amount of primitive information, primitive pieces of information can be combined at so-called brokers in the network, a process called composition. Information composition provides subscribers the desirable ability to express interests in an efficiently selective way. In this paper, we formulate the min-cost event distribution problem in pubsystems with policy constraints and information composition. Our goal is to minimize the total cost of event transmission while satisfying policy constraints and enabling information composition. This optimization problem is shown to be NP-complete. Our simulation study shows that our heuristics work efficiently, especially in a policy-constrained system. We also find that by increasing the number of broker nodes in a pubsub system, we are able to reduce the total cost of event delivery. View full abstract»

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