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Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 1992. Proceedings., IEEE/AIAA 11th

Date 5-8 Oct. 1992

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  • Proceedings of 1992 IEEE/AIAA 11th Digital Avionics Systems Conference

    Publication Year: 1992
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The airborne open system interconnection data link test facility

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 509 - 513
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    The author describes the activities of the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center in the joint government-industry Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) project. The ATN is defined as a network architecture that allows use of multiple communication subnetworks and provides a path for oceanic, international, and domestic data link services. A major goal of the design process is the separation of the user applications from the communications and interoperability among diverse data link subnetworks. This project is oriented toward the eventual provision of a world-wide packet switched architecture for the networking of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection (OSI) conformant host computer and systems and router intermediate systems View full abstract»

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  • Retrofit of flat panel color displays in the F-16A/B

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 323 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Replacement of the Radar Electro-Optical (REO) Display Set, including its monochrome cathode ray tubes in the F-16A/B, with color active matrix liquid crystal displays presents many opportunities to improve the information presentation to the pilot and the pilot's interaction with the avionics system. The author presents the process followed by Battelle under the US Air Force Material Command's Design Engineering Program to develop the display formats and pilot-computer interface with the improved REO Display Set. While the general guideline for computer-generated images is no more than five to seven colored elements at a time, the system being designed for the F-16A/B provides many more colors for reasons of realism in future images to be displayed in combat and transport aircraft. The system provides for technology insertion and growth due to its use of an open system architecture implementation of a multiprocessing capability. While the initial software will implement the F-16A/B REO systems' symbology, the capability is provided to generate realistic images that will aid pilots in performance of their missions View full abstract»

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  • U.S. Coast Guard Aireye remote sensing system: the system-its uses-future upgrades

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 51 - 56
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    The U.S. Coast Guard's Aireye remote sensor system, its uses, and its future upgrades are discussed. The Aireye system is a remote sensor package integrated into the HU-25B aircraft stationed at US Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod. This day/night all-weather system consists of a side-looking airborne radar, an infrared/ultraviolet line scanner, and a high-resolution reconnaissance camera. These are all integrated into a real-time digital sensor data management and display system View full abstract»

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  • Advanced crewstation design

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 319 - 322
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    Northrop's 1992 Advanced Crewstation Integration Cockpit (ACIC '92) has integrated full and rapid configurability with prototype or actual flight-qualified display hardware (cathode ray tubes and liquid crystal displays). Coupled with its updated acrodynamic threat, sensor, and weapons system simulation, an extremely comprehensive test and performance evaluation system is made available to the crewstation designer. The ACIC '92 allows creation and implementation of novel and task-specific measurement of performance that allow near-optimization of candidate designs. The ACIC '92 retains the small footprint and single-man operation of the previous unit. Specific applications and problem solutions generated by the ACIC '92 are addressed View full abstract»

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  • Integrated voice and data communications for air traffic service applications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Cited by:  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    The present work has been prepared in support of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) sponsored Mission Oriented Investigation and Experimentation project. The main purpose of the project was twofold: 1) to demonstrate the operational benefits of integrated digital voice and data applications that will enhance air traffic control (ATC) and air traffic services and 2) to demonstrate the operational benefits of discrete addressing and call queuing, capabilities provided by a future VHF digital air/ground radio concept. The project included establishing a testbed and assessing the technical impact of introducing enhanced features into the next-generation National Airspace System communications system. Simulated airborne aircraft scenarios were developed to highlight the benefits of these features. Benefits demonstrated included enhancement of ATC voice and data call management capabilities, enhancement of communications with rescue coordination centers, added support provided by a national data base, and reduction of channel contention problems View full abstract»

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  • An integrated on-board route planner for helicopter applications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 193 - 198
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    A description of the IBM in-flight route planner and its integration on the STAR (System Testbed for Avionics Research) UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter is provided. The route planner processes operator inserted waypoint and threat data and computes a set of sequential turn points that avoid enemy threat locations. These turn points are then provided to the CALAHF (Computer Aiding for Low Altitude Helicopter Flight) system for precision path generation and tracking. The authors provide a description of route planner functions and discuss its hardware configuration. They also discuss current status as well as some potential performance improvement features not included in the STAR version View full abstract»

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  • Digital communications technology for air transport applications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 47 - 50
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    The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) is being developed as a means of providing reliable digital communications for air transport aircraft by internetworking avionics end systems, air/ground communications links, multiple ground distribution systems, and ground end systems. Satellite communications systems allow ATN to be available anywhere in the world, providing tremendous economic advantages to the air transport industry through more efficient operations. Integration of voice and data networks will provide a totally automated communications system for air transport aircraft View full abstract»

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  • The maintenance of operational flight programs

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 388 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The process of maintaining operational flight programs (OFPs) is discussed. The aim of this discussion is to allow interested individuals to understand how OFPs work, how OFPs are changed, how OFPs are tested, how OFPs documented, how to train OFP maintainers, and how to OFPs View full abstract»

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  • Data link considerations for GPS based airport surface traffic management systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 97 - 101
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    The author discusses the communications capability for airport surface traffic management systems, and, more specifically, the communications capability for those systems that derive at least a portion of their position and velocity information by processing transmissions from the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. Both communications requirements and communications subsystem design are considered. Attention is given to top level communication requirements including such issues as the types of communication that are necessary, the value and benefits to be derived from communications, and the key design drivers. Communication requirements are then discussed in somewhat more detail, and an attempt is made to quantify requirements wherever possible. In addition, the key system design issues and alternatives are briefly explained. Alternative communication system implementations that appear to have promise with respect to meeting the stated requirements are listed. A spread spectrum data link alternative for the data link implementation is highlighted View full abstract»

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  • “...And we were tired”: fatigue and aircrew errors

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 352 - 357
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    Cooper, White, and Lauber (quoted in C.E. Billings and W.D. Reynard, 1984) analyzed jet-transport accidents worldwide for the period 1968 to 1976 and found more than 60 in which breakdowns of the crew performance and decision-making process played a pivotal role. The author of the present work argues that the results reported by Cooper et al. are related to fatigue and that fatigue is related to sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronosis, and lack of good nutrition. It is further argued, and supporting research is cited, that fatigue does not cause loss of skill in flying the aircraft but may have disastrous effects on judgmental and decision-making functions View full abstract»

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  • Implementing system simulation of C3 systems using autonomous objects

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 275 - 280
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    The basis of all conflict recognition in simulation is a common frame of reference. Synchronous discrete-event simulation (DES) relies on the fixed points in time as the basic frame of reference. Asynchronous DES relies on fixed points in the model space as the basic frame of reference. It is pointed out that neither approach provides sufficient support for autonomous objects. The use of a spatial template as a frame of reference is proposed to address these insufficiencies. The concept of a spatial template is defined, and an implementation approach is offered. The use of this approach to analyze the integration of sensor data associated with command, control, and communication (C 3) systems is discussed. The spatial template basis of model coordination and the use of object-oriented software provide a mechanism for implementing autonomous objects in a DES modeling paradigm and computer software. The availability of such simulation tools has the potential to change the scope and level of use in systems analysis in general and in C3 systems analysis in particular View full abstract»

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  • Role of hardware-in-the-loop simulation in fly-by-light system development

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    It is proposed that hardware-in-the-loop simulation is an effective and relatively inexpensive way to build the experience that will be necessary for acceptance of photonics implementation for future vehicle management systems. This approach has application beyond the normal role of integration and V&V (verification and validation) testing. It can be used as an operational mockup to evaluate manufacturing and installation procedures, to evaluate supportability issues, to demonstrate the advantages of functional and physical integration, and to evaluate the crew interface in normal and abnormal situations. When at a high utilization rate in a way that duplicates mission sequences and environmental stresses, the facility can begin to provide essential durability data View full abstract»

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  • Basic electronic systems certification

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 470 - 475
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The author discusses how the fledgling avionics equipment designer/manufacturer should interact with the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). He presents a basic primer on Federal Aviation Regulations and guidance associated with avionics and electrical systems. FAA organizations with which an applicant will have contact are considered along with FAA processes and procedures related to FAA design, manufacturing, and installation approvals. Pitfalls frequently encountered by new entrants into the arena of avionics and electrical system certification are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Plan-based information requirements: automated knowledge acquisition to support information management in an intelligent pilot-vehicle interface

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 428 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    The authors describe a prototype system that automatically derives abstract, display-independent information requirements (IRs) from a characterization of a pilot-level plan. Objects and actions present in the plan can also be used to describe the manner in which the information will be required, e.g., with what scope, resolution, bandwidth, etc. This information can then be used as the basis for display management within the pilot-vehicle interface model of the US Air Force's Pilot's Associate (PA). The project described is called Learning System for Information Requirements (LSIR). The goal of this research was increased speed, accuracy, consistency, and completeness in the plan based information requirements knowledge base of the PA View full abstract»

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  • Engineering work station for rapid proto-typing of real time display systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 57 - 61
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    The Displays Engineering Work Station (DEWS), a real-time, flexible, low-cost system used to support electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) development and demonstration activities, is described. Eight different DEWS systems have been developed from the original concept. Each is specifically tailored to meet a unique development, verification, or demonstration requirement. DEWS has been used to supply real-time simulated test data to avionic line replaceable units by ways of ARINC 429, ARINC 629, discrete, analog, and syncro inputs. It has been used to capture real-time test data from laboratory aircraft simulators by way of ARINC 429 data buses. It has been used to drive liquid crystal displays in a proto-typing and demonstration environment. EFIS application software development and debugging have also been supported using this platform, as well as simulation of graphic rendering hardware. DEWS is based on the PC 386 system with the VRTX real-time kernel View full abstract»

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  • Digital avionics simulation for trainers

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 434 - 439
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    Faithful simulation of digital avionics in trainers requires realistic system performance over the full range of tactical operations that the students are expected to learn. The author describes how these requirements have been achieved in a ground-based helicopter tactics trainer. These requirements have been achieved for the 14H9 Tactical Team Trainer (TTT) developed for the US Navy SH-60F antisubmarine warfare (ASW) helicopter. This was done through the use of specially developed avionic simulation hardware and software. The high level of completeness and fidelity of simulation is a key ingredient in the ability of the TTT to accurately portray the SH-6OF helicopter tactical avionic system performance in a variety of conditions. Two student stations can be linked together to simulate realistic ASW team tactics operational scenarios. Each student station can also operate independently. The instructor, through the use of high-resolution color graphic display monitors and a graphical user interface, can efficiently control and monitor the training exercise View full abstract»

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  • Core avionics domain analysis

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 143 - 148
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    The authors outline the process, challenges, and preliminary results of performing a domain analysis for the avionics functions of navigation, guidance, and flight director-essential, real-time features of integrated avionics systems. They describe the relationships between the components of the architecture and the principles behind the architecture's organization. In particular, they present a first-level look at the preliminary design of the navigation component. The goal of the research discussed is to use domain analysis to engineer an architecture and associated components that allow the rapid development of requirements and software for avionics functions. Another aim is to overcome some of the shortcomings in software reuse and computer aided software engineering (CASE) for avionics software development. This research aims to free the software and system designers from the routine aspects of avionics development, thus giving them time to concentrate on engineering the best solution for their customers View full abstract»

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  • Open architecture considerations for aerospace computer systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 329 - 334
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    Typical features for open and non-open (or closed) computer systems are examined and compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. Representative examples are shown for each system approach along with a trade of salient parameters. Requirements for good open system designs are then summarized as a composite interrelated set and discussed. Rationale is provided for the most significant requirements. Finally, the benefits of an open system approach to aerospace computer systems listed and discussed, also with supporting rationale. Those benefits and potentially may yield significant cost and/or schedule reduction to a project are especially highlighted View full abstract»

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  • An advanced system for the verification and validation of real-time avionics software

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 370 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    The design of an advanced avionics verification and validation (AAV&V) system is presented. The AAV&V system supports the complete software development process as well as the V&V of existing software and incorporates a variety of existing and emerging analysis and testing techniques. The AAV&V methodology incorporates a combination of V&V techniques, allowing the strengths of one technique to overcome the deficiencies of others. It supports static analysis to gather information about the structure of the code and to detect static errors, structured testing to detect run-time errors, formal analysis to validate that a program satisfies its requirements, and a statistical analysis to estimate a program's reliability. The AAV&V system provides automated support for each technique and gathers information about the program to aid in the understanding, documentation, and maintenance of the code. The development of a prototype AAV&V system currently underway is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Application of shipboard sensor fusion to airborne platforms

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 290 - 295
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A set of algorithms which allow the development of a sensor fusion system is described. The algorithms are applicable to airborne platforms. These algorithms are based on the US Navy's AN/SYS family of integrated automatic detection and tracking (IADT) systems. The algorithms described allow the fusion of radar, identification friend or foe (IFF), electronic surveillance measures (ESMs), and optical sensors. The algorithms were developed based on experience fusing radar and ESM data from US Navy ships including cruisers, destroyers, amphibious ships, aircraft carriers, and frigates. The algorithms process the data from the sensors aboard an aircraft to reject false returns from noise, clutter, interference, and jamming. At the same time these processes rapidly detect the real target in the noisy real-world environment View full abstract»

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  • Military magnetic diskfiles in the avionics environment

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 189 - 192
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    A cost-effective method of providing mass storage in the digital avionics environment is discussed. The method provides distinct advantages over traditional magnetic and optical drives and the newer Flash EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory). This solution to the storage requirements problem involves the use of IBM commercial technology and is military-compliant using a number of FSC (Federal Systems Company) proprietary techniques. Leveraging commercial quantities for the HDA (head disk assembly) provides a significant cost advantage over an approach which designs and builds an HDA from the ground up. The ground up approach has been found to be unnecessary for meeting military requirements for digital avionics. Besides the cost advantage, this approach allows military diskfile capacities and performance to stay in step with the latest advances in IBM commercial technology. This provides a clear growth path for increasing capacities View full abstract»

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  • Simplifying semi-Markov fault recovery models

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 41 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The author presents computational techniques that extend and relate several approximation methods in reliability prediction and performance analysis. The approximation methods considered are those that tackle the problems that arise when a Markov or semi-Markov model has a mix of very slow rates and very fast rates. It is shown that the heuristic rule approximation from performance analysis and the instantaneous jump approximation from reliability modeling are mathematically equivalent. That is, the two methods alter the probabilities in the same way. The results obtained permit the computation of the probabilities and moments of complex fault recovery and system repair models. The results are useful when analyzing highly reliable or high-performance systems, and they are relevant for several reliability prediction packages and for a model reduction method in performance analysis View full abstract»

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  • US coast guard HH-65A helicopter avionics block upgrade

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 205 - 209
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The avionics block upgrade program underway for the US Coast Guard HH-65A helicopter is described. The aircraft utilizes a fully integrated avionics suite provided by Collins Avionics and Communications Division of Rockwell International Corporation. This upgrade includes the incorporation and integration of an embedded cockpit voice and flight data recording system and the integration of secure communications and digital encryption standard control. These functions will be performed by programmable interface control units (PICUs). The PICUs have new more powerful processors, and application software can be loaded via the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. The PICUs will replace the two existing system coupler computers (SCCs). The existing cockpit control displays will be replaced by control display navigation units (CDNUs). CDNU application software can also be loaded via the 1553B data bus. The existing mission computer unit (MCU) will be removed, and its functions will be performed by the PICUs and CDNUs View full abstract»

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  • F-16A/B improved REO display set modular architecture

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 243 - 247
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    The modular avionics architecture used in the F-16A/B Improved Radar Electro-Optical (REO) Display makes use of existing standards, both industry and military. The architecture uses the IEEE-1296 backplane bus to interconnect the modules performing multiprocessing, MIL-STD-1553, RS-232, and High Speed Data Bus communications with external digital subsystems, and EIA-RS-170A and RS-343 for interfacing with video sources and displays. This architecture permits insertion of additional modules providing new functionality and technology. Many of the shortcomings of Ada for an architecture of this type, such as indeterminacy and lack of scheduling methods other than the Pragma Priority, are avoided by using a run-time kernel and statically allocating the load modules View full abstract»

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