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MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems, 2004. ICMENS 2004. Proceedings. 2004 International Conference on

Date 25-27 Aug. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 150
  • 2004 International Conference on MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems - Cover

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): c1
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  • 2004 International Conference on MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems - Title Page

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): i - iii
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  • 2004 International Conference on MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems - Copyright Page

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): iv
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  • 2004 International Conference on MEMS, NANO and Smart Systems - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): v - xvi
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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): xvii - xviii
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  • Organizing Committee

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): xix - xxiv
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  • Integrative Technology Engineering Emergent Behavior into Materials and Systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 2
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  • Smart Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Gene and Drug Delivery

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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    Block copolymers with amphiphilic character, having a large solubility difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments, are known to assemble in an aqueous milieu into polymeric micelles with a mesoscopic size range. These micelles have a fairly narrow size distribution and are featured by their unique core-shell architecture, where hydrophobic segments are segregated from the aqueous exterior to form inner core surrounded by a palisade of hydrophilic segments. Recently, progressive interest has been raised in the application of these block copolymer micelles as novel carrier systems in the field of drug targeting because of the high drug-loading capacity of the inner core as well as of the unique disposition characteristics in the body [1,2]. View full abstract»

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  • Supramolecular Design of Polyrotaxanes as Advanced Nano-Biomaterials

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 6 - 7
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    Supramolecular architectures have been extensively studied in the last decade [1]. In particular, polyrotaxanes have been much interested as a novel class of molecular assemblies, in which cyclic compounds are threaded onto a linear polymeric chain capped with bulky end-groups. We have systematically studied a variety of biodegradable polyrotaxanes consisting of many cyclodextrins such as α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) and a polyether such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and their hydrogels aiming at carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. For instance, hydrolyzable polyrotaxane hydrogels have been designed as a scaffold for cartilage regeneration [2]. Here the hydrolysis of our designed polyrotaxane hydrogels is well controlled by inclusion complexation of ester groups located at the terminal of the PEG in the polyrotaxanes, and the time to complete hydrogel erosion varies from a few days to more than two year in spite of their highly swollen states in physiological conditions [3]. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Assembled Organic Nanotubes: A Novel Platform for Drug Design and Discovery

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 8
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    Self-assembly and self-organization processes are the thread that connects the reductionism of chemical reactions to the complexity and emergence of a living dynamic system. Artificial self-assembly derives its principles from nature and its processes, and uses this understanding to design nanoscale devices with predefined function. However, complex forms of organized matter cannot be synthesized bond-by-bond. Rather, a new type of synthesis based on noncovalent forces is necessary to generate functional entities from the bottom up. This growing field of the chemical sciences challenges much of the basic premises of conventional Woodwardian chemistry: The conceptualization of an organized state of matter requires in-depth understanding not only of chemical reactivity but also of noncovalent forces necessary to translate chemical information into functional superstructures. View full abstract»

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  • Nano-Engineered Polymeric Micelles for Drug Delivery to Resistant Tumor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 9
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    Amphiphilic macromolecules self-assemble to nanoscopic core/shell structures in an aqueous environment, namely polymeric micelles that can encapsulate water insoluble drugs, proteins and DNA, and target therapeutics to their site of action in a passive or active way. Polymeric micelles share many structural and functional features with natural transport system, e.g., virus and lipoproteins. The versatility of the synthetic chemistry in polymeric micelles is a bonus providing opportunities to design appropriate nano-carriers for individual delivery requirements. Development of nano-engineered polymeric micellar formulations that can address the problem of drug resistance in cancer is the focus of our current studies. In this context, the effect of chemical manipulations on the encapsulation, release, bio-distribution and cellular interaction of the polymeric nanocarrier is assessed to select appropriate chemistries for optimized delivery of P-glycoprotein substrates to resistant tumors. Early results will be discussed in this presentation. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Prototyping of Protein Reaction Microfluidic Chips

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 12 - 16
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    This paper presents an innovative approach for the prototyping of a microfluidic chip. By design modularization, unit mold batch fabrication, and mold assembly, the prototyping of polymeric microfluidic chips can be efficient and cost effective. The development of a microfluidic chip for protein reactions, including structure fabrication and chip testing for the initial and modified versions, is reported. Using the proposed approach, design modifications can be realized easily, without remaking photolithography masks or repeating the costly MEMS process. Initial results from testing two micro- fluidic chips (5cm by 1cm and 4cm by 3cm) prove the feasibility of the proposed method and show as well the potential for dramatic savings in time and cost in microfluidic chip prototyping. View full abstract»

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  • A Numerical Investigation of an Electrostatic-Peristaltic Colloidal Micro Pump

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 17 - 21
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    An electrostatically driven peristaltic micropump is presented in this paper. A colloidal particle suspended in an electrolyte inside a charged cylindrical capillary will experience an electrical double layer force due to the charged capillary wall. Perturbations in the geometry of the capillary wall result in modification of the electrical force on the particle. If moving these perturbations of the capillary wall along its axis can set up a peristaltic motion of the capillary wall, it will drag the colloidal particle along the capillary. This type of motion can be employed to develop a microfluidic pumping device. This article describes a finite element simulation procedure employed to model such a device. View full abstract»

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  • Structure and Stability of Self-Assembled Monolayers for Octadecanethiol Adsorbed onto Flame-Annealed Gold Substrate and Its Potential Application to Microfluidics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 22 - 25
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    Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) derived from the adsorption of organothiols onto gold have been extensively investigated for studying their potential applications to Micro- and Nanofluidics system. However, nearly all applications rely on SAMs' stability. Because high energy gold is easy to absorb organic contaminant from ambient, totally wetting gold surface can not be obtained in the laboratory environment. Flame annealing the gold surface before adsorption not only remove the organic contaminant, it also shaves the "rolling hills" on the evaporated gold surface. SAMs formed on annealed gold surface have better structure and stability than those formed on evaporated gold. These properties will be helpful for potential application on microfluidics system as a surface modification. Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of SAMs. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrications of Micro-Channel Device by Hot Emboss and Direct Bonding of PMMA

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 26 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have fabricated and evaluated the mechanical, optical and fluidic characteristics a 50µm wide and a 30µm deep micro-channel device produced by hot emboss and direct bonding of PMMA plate with dimensions of 20mm × 20mm × 1mm. The fabricated micro-channel device was evaluated the bond strength, which was confirmed to be high enough for practical use as well as for quite severe cleaning conditions as ultrasonic cleaning in pure water. The optical loss around bonded interface was also evaluated and no increase in the light absorption was observed. The above results confirmed that the hot emboss and direct bonding technologies for micro-channel manufacturing using the PMMA plates realizes high performance micro channel devices. View full abstract»

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  • Conformations of Super-Elastic Carbon Micro/Nano-Springs and Their Properties

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 32 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Double-helix carbon micro-springs were prepared by the Ni catalyzed pyrolysis of acetylene containing a small amount of H2S, in high purity (almost 100% among the deposits) and yield (about 20% versus acetylene feed). The conformation and some properties of the carbon micro-springs were examined, and the potential applications were discussed. It was found that they have super-elastic properties, and could be extended to 3-15 times of the original spring axis length and contracted to original state after the load was released. The resistivity increased with increasing extension length, and then got recovery after the load was released. This property enables the microsprings to be used as an advanced bulk sensor material in MEMS. Furthermore, the micro-springs exhibited outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption properties in GHz regions. The conformation of novel single-helix carbon nano-springs prepared by Fe-containing alloys as the catalyst will be also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Platinum Nanowires Actuator: Metallic Nano-Muscles

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 36 - 40
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    In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of electro-chemical actuator using platinum nanowire networks. Reversible strain amplitudes of ~ 0.04% have been observed by controlling the surface electronic charge density of the nanowire network through an applied voltage in an electrolyte solution. Displacement amplitudes of up to 3mm was observed for an applied voltage of only ±3 V, much smaller compared to most commercial piezoceramic materials. These results indicate the potential application of platinum nanowires for construction of artificial muscles and materials with tunable electronic properties. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Oriented Self Assembled Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    We report the self assembled surface oriented growth of single walled carbon nanotubes along the surface of View full abstract»

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  • Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with Antibodies for Breast Cancer Detection Applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 48 - 53
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    We study the effect of functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) with a primary monoclonal mouse immunoglobin G (IgG) specific to the cell-surface receptors of breast cancer cells, and secondary polyclonal goat ant- mouse IgG. The CNTs, in solution with a surfactant (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) were labeled with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), a fluorescent dye, in order to view them with fluorescently labeled antibodies through confocal microscopy. Co-localization for CNTs in combination with the primary antibody conjugated to the secondary was determined to be 90%, whereas CNTs in combination with the secondary antibody and polyethylene glycol (PEG), a polymer used to block CNTs from proteins binding to their surface, was found to be very minimal (0.5%). Preliminary studies on the electrical measurements of the primary mouse IgG incubated with CNTs show a decrease in conductance compared to that of bare CNT field effect transistors (CNTFETs). This observed change in conductance, can eventually be amplified and utilized in applications leading to a full-fledged breast cancer detection system in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs through Self-Assembling Nanostructures

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 56 - 57
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    Many potent therapeutic agents possess a high degree of hydrophobicity which can greatly impede their solubilization in aqueous media and thus hamper their oral or parenteral administration. In order to circumvent this limitation, novel drug delivery systems, such as polymeric micelles and lipid-based nanocapsules, are being developed. In general, these nano-sized carriers contain a hydrophobic core which provides the necessary environment to solubilize poorly water-soluble drugs. In addition, when administered intravenously, they can passively target inflamed or cancerous tissues due to the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, potentially improving the therapeutic efficacy of the drug while reducing its toxicity. Alternatively, the limited oral bioavailability of hydrophobic agents can be improved by selectively releasing the drug in its molecular form close to the absorption site. Polymeric micelles containing pH-sensitive moieties and loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug can dissociate and release their payload in the intestine. This presentation will focus on injectable polymeric and lipidic vectors for hydrophobic anti-cancer agents and on pH-sensitive polymeric micelles as promoters of the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs [1]. View full abstract»

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  • ABC Micelles for Drug Delivery - Nanoscopic Vehicles for Potent Yet Toxic and Poorly Water-Soluble Compounds

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (39 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) assemble into nanoscopic supramolecular core-shell structures called micelles, which are under extensive study for drug delivery. The shell of ABC micelles consists of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a non-toxic water-soluble polymer, which prevents protein adsorption and cellular adhesion, and the core of ABC micelles consists of a smaller hydrophobic block or part, which varies in drug delivery due to the requirements of biocompatibility, compatibility with the poorly water-soluble drug of interest, and stability of ABC micelles in blood. In drug delivery, a goal is to study the potential of ABC micelles as `nanocarriers?? for potent yet toxic and poorly water-soluble drugs. View full abstract»

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  • New Biocompatible Nanoparticles Based on Fractionized Gelatin as Drug Delivery Systems for Nucleic Acids and Peptides

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 59
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    In 1978 Marty et al. described for the first time the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles using desalting or desolvating agents. The desolvation process using acetone or other non-solvents works only with very low concentrations of gelatin (0.1%) [1]. By increasing the gelatin concentration in the solution the formation of aggregations during desolvation and cosslinking also dramatically increases. In 1985 the molecular weight of gelatin was described to be between 60000-90000 Da [2]. With improved analytical equipment, the specification of the molecular weight of one of the largest gelatin producers worldwide (DGF Stoess AG, Eberbach, Germany) is today from below 20000 to over 400000 Da. This shows the heterogeneity of gelatin and makes it more understanding why there are many difficulties in the preparation of nanoparticles from this substance. View full abstract»

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  • In Vitro Gene Transfection with Surface-Modified Gelatin Nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 60 - 63
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    With the development of the two step desolvation method for the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles, it is possible to reproducibly generate homogeneous colloidal spheres. After the establishment of a surface modification to achieve stable nucleotide loading onto the particles, the goal of this study was to test this new biodegradable and simple producible non-viral gene delivery system in vitro. Two different types of gelatin nanoparticles, referring to size and zeta (ζ) potential were investigated. Therefore, we varied conditions as for example the loaded DNA amount and the conjugation media to find a preferable setup. All preparations were tested on B16F10 murine melanoma cells using pCMVLuc as reporter gene. To evaluate our results, we used commonly known, but non-biodegradable, polyethylenimine (PEI) polyplexes as "gold standard" for in vitro transfection. Additionally, we performed accompanying cell viability assays and hemolysis studies with the preparations tested to substantiate the thesis of low cell toxicity of gelatin nanoparticles. Different setups resulted in efficient gene delivery. The achieved levels of gene expression were good but lower as with optimized PEI polyplexes. Nevertheless, the already achieved results show gelatin nanoparticles as promising biodegradable alternative to existing non-viral gene delivery systems. View full abstract»

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  • Electrowetting on Dielectric: A Low Voltage Study on Self-Assembled Monolayers and Its Wetting Kinetics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 66 - 71
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    A systematic study of electrowetting using alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as a dielectric layer is presented. SAMs surfaces are characterized by means of ellipsometry, and contact angle measurement. It is demonstrated that droplet spreading can be induced by a much lower voltage (4 volts), although SAMs appear to be irreversible at this operating potential. Experimental results show that the kinetics of contact angle of a NaCl solution droplet significantly depend on SAMs functional group, but not the hydrocarbon chain length. The modified molecular kinetic model employed to produce the fitted curves is in good agreement with the experimental results. A linear relation between the viscous parameter of the model and the number of hydrocarbon chain length of the thiol layer can be found. It appears that the friction force is also significantly influenced by the functionality of SAMs. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Chemical-Resistant Microvalve Array Using Parylene Membrane and Pneumatic Actuation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 72 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A pneumatic microvalve array was designed and fabricated using silicon/glass bulk micromachining and a new parylene bonding technique. The valve membrane is made of parylene, thus has very compact size (300 µm x 300 µm) and excellent chemical resistance. The operation of valves was characterized to reveal the effects of several parameters such as actuation and inlet pressure. The valve demonstrates a flow rate as high as 0.33ml/min in open state with 15.5psi inlet pressure, and very low leaking rate. With the proposed novel control logic, the microfabricated valve array device is expected to be very suitable for fluidic manipulation in integrated lab-on-a-chip systems in which aggressive chemicals are involved and high throughputs are required. View full abstract»

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