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Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2005. Proceedings. IEEE

Date 6-8 June 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 156
  • An enhanced traffic simulation system for interactive traffic environment

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 739 - 742
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study develops a microscopic traffic simulation model (KAKUMO), which is built into a mixed reality experiment system under an interactive traffic environment. We are developing a mixed reality experiment system to examine several human factors such as driving behavior and travel choice behavior, which are required to design and evaluate various ITS systems. The system is characterized by the environment, in which a driver, vehicles and infrastructure are dynamically interacting with each other. In this paper, we introduce the specification and performance of the micro simulation model, which is built into the prototype mixed reality system. View full abstract»

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  • A fuzzy vehicle detection based on contour size similarity

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 496 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the obstacle detection for autonomous vehicle is carried out by a monocular camera, which is capable of detecting multiple obstacles, identifying the difference between obstacles and text or shadows on the road surface. The task of detection can be fulfilled under the circumstances of general brightness or in the presence of strong sunshine. An obstacle detection approach named contour size similarity (CSS) is developed in this paper. CSS is a way to make use of the contour size of objects and compare the similarity between objects and obstacles detected by means of fuzzy so as to judge whether the objects in the images are the obstacles we want to detect. The obstacles in this paper mainly refer to vehicles. Vehicles and obstacles with similar contour of vehicles can be detected by CSS. Then, we use section division to find out the nearest obstacle in separate section to provide necessary information for autonomous vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Shape and motion-based pedestrian detection in infrared images: a multi sensor approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 18 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work deals with the detection and tracking of pedestrians. The focus of the investigations was on methods, which allow a precise and detailed description of both significant features of pedestrians: shape and motion. Since the practical employment of such methods requires a good initialization and tracking, a multi sensor system was developed consisting of a far infrared camera, a laser scanning device and ego motion sensors. To handle the combination of the information of the different sensors a Kalman filter based data fusion is used. Arranging a set of Kalman filters in parallel, a multi sensor/multi target tracking system was created. The system structure combines a straightforward with a backward loop methodology to combine fast initiation functions with more affordable verification functions. Therefore formerly known semiautomatic image processing methods work fully automatically in the system. The analysis of the estimated optical flow regarding the typical human motion as well as the analysis of shape parameters using active contour models is performed. The multi sensor/multi target tracking system is installed on a test vehicle to obtain practical results, which are also discussed in this article. View full abstract»

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  • Constrained optimal control for lateral vehicle guidance

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 429 - 434
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach of lateral vehicle control. The lane keeping task is looked at as a constrained optimal control problem. Constrained optimal control can compensate for system time delays and first order system response behavior of low-level sub-systems. Physical system constraints as well as constraints imposed by comfort and safety considerations can be taken into account and balanced in the controller design process. This yields significant advantages over standard control approaches. Simulation results as well as results obtained with a real test vehicle are provided. View full abstract»

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  • A novel module of tracking vehicles with occlusion

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 894 - 899
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video surveillance technology has been widely used in intelligent transportation system (ITS) to measure traffic flow parameters and detect accidents. Occlusion of moving objects by stationary or other moving foreground objects always causes tracking errors. This paper presents a novel module for vehicle tracking under the condition of occlusion, which can be conveniently added to the existing video surveillance systems as a complementary part. The appearance information of the object (shape and texture) is combined with the spatial-temporal Markov random field (MRF) based tracking model through a kind of special structuring elements in mathematical morphology (MM) theory. As a result, the sites in MRF are reduced, which saves computational cost greatly, and the assumption on the vehicle shape model in prior is not needed. Experiments on various kinds of image sequences show that the proposed module can effectively track vehicles with severe occlusion. View full abstract»

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  • An encrypted mobile embedded surveillance system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 502 - 507
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This manuscript addresses the design and implementation of an encrypted mobile embedded surveillance system, EMESS, including a wireless server and mobile devices. Not only the mobility of the hand-held devices, but also the surveillance system can work in a moving body, then, a real mobile surveillance system is provided. In the security applications of vehicles, EMESS also can provide the images of thieves and robbers to the vehicle owner. We complete the related works of EMESS and the corresponding application programs for wireless communication of hand-held devices. View full abstract»

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  • Visual-based assistance for electric vehicle driving

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 656 - 661
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a unique assistance system for driving a vehicle. We wish to establish an ideal intelligent vehicle that detects obstructions through use of the mounted sensors, which provide sufficient visual-based aid. To this end, we utilize an infrared camera, a laser range finder, and a gyrosensor so that these sensors provide some assisted visual cues for a driver to identify unexpected obstructions. In this proposed vehicle, we develop several interesting modules. For example, in addition to a 2D heat-map provided by the infrared camera, the system provides depth to the map by utilizing the tracking results of the gyroscope. The depth values in the region of interests are computed in a real-time video-frame rate by motion stereo from a single far-infrared camera, based on typical pinhole lens model. We also develop a graphical representation of a virtual camera so that the driver can see the field of view presented by the mounted sensor. The laser range sensor will compensate the camera by increasing the field of view and providing accuracy for detected objects. Indoor-based experimental results using a portable electric scooter demonstrate the feasibility and merits of this new sensory approach on the driving assistant system. View full abstract»

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  • Pedestrian detection using stereo-vision and graph kernels

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 267 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for pedestrian detection with stereovision and graph comparison. Images are segmented thanks to the NCut method applied on a single image, and the disparity is computed from a pair of images. This segmentation enables us to keep only shapes of potential obstacles, by eliminating the background. The comparison between two graphs is accomplished with an inner product for graph, and then the recognition stage is performed learning is done among several pedestrian and non-pedestrian graphs with SVM method. The results that are depicted are preliminary results but they show that this approach is very promising since it clearly demonstrates that our graph representation is able to deal with the variability of pedestrian pose. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time vision-based preceding vehicle tracking and recognition

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 514 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a preceding vehicle tracking and detection system which includes road area finding, vehicle footprint extraction, and vehicle bounding box extraction. Our method detects the footprint of the vehicle inside the road area to avoid the false detection of delineators. By extracting the preceding vehicle, we effectively track the vehicles, and detect the passing car and distant car. Then, we also propose the distance measure formula. Through camera calibration process and vanishing point detection process, we can calculate the distance to the preceding vehicle accurately. View full abstract»

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  • A monocular vision-based occupant classification approach for smart airbag deployment

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 632 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Occupant classification is essential to a smart airbag system that can either turn off or deploy in a less harmful way according to the type of the occupants in the front seat. This paper presents a monocular vision-based occupant classification approach to classify the occupants into five categories including empty seats, adults in normal position, adults out of position, front-facing child/infant seats, and rear-facing infant seats. The proposed approach consists of image representation and pattern classification. The image representation step computes Haar wavelets and edge features from the monochrome video frames. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier next determines the occupant category based on the representative features. We have tested our approach on a large variety of indoor and outdoor images acquired under various illumination conditions for occupants with different appearances, sizes and shapes. With a strict occupant exclusive training/testing split, our approach has achieved an average correct classification rate of 97.18% among the five occupant categories. View full abstract»

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  • UML methodology for smart transducer integration in real-time embedded systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 688 - 693
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real-time embedded (RT/E) applications aim at controlling/commanding/monitoring systems. To achieve this goal, RT/E applications are equipped with sensors to acquire specific representative data matching physical phenomena of the environment state. In parallel, work related to sensor design proposed a new concept, called smart sensor, ensuring better solution in this area. But the design of such smart sensors remains very difficult and requires high skill level in various domains. The purpose of this paper is then to suggest a UML based methodology easing the development of RT/E applications relying on smart sensors devices. The methodology has to integrate concepts for data exchange, real-time constraint management, and time coherence mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • Hypothesis based vehicle detection for increased simplicity in multi-sensor ACC

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 261 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Systems for adaptive cruise control (ACC) become increasingly complex in case multiple sensors are used. The search space, detection error and run-time may increase substantially due to combinatory explosion of methods and data. This paper presents a method that simplifies fusion between range and vision devices using corresponding sets of hypotheses. A system is proposed that combines three modules: one uses output of a 24 GHz radar device, one uses single images from a monocular camera system; and one uses the image sequence data of the same system. The radar detection module uses condensation tracking. The vehicle detection module uses scaled symmetry detection. The three modules are fused by sharing sets of hypotheses for detection of vehicles. Results show 96% error reduction with respect to range sensing only and 63% detection increase due to tracking. View full abstract»

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  • VisionSense: an advanced lateral collision warning system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 296 - 301
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    VisionSense is an advanced driver assistance system which combines a lateral collision warning system with vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This paper shows the results of user needs assessment and traffic safety modelling of VisionSense. User needs were determined by means of a Web-based survey. The results show, that VisionSense is most appreciated when it uses a light signal to warn the driver in a possibly hazardous situation on a highway. The willingness to pay is estimated at 300 Euros. Another conclusion based on the survey is that frequent car users want less assistance than less frequent drivers. Besides the user needs the impact on traffic safety is modelled. The results are indicative and more research has to be done. Traffic safety effects of VisionSense on a highway were modelled by means of a microscopic car following and lane change algorithm. Twelve different traffic scenarios were modelled with and without VisionSense. With VisionSense no traffic conflicts occur due to lane changing and less lane changes are performed. VisionSense is a system that can improve traffic safety in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the discrete Haar wavelet transform to image fusion for nighttime driving

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 273 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Infrared images can often provide information missing in visible images in a night driving system, but infrared images lack key features needed to operate a vehicle. Image fusion techniques can be used to combine the relevant information from both the visible and infrared images. The need for high frame rates in an automotive application motivates the investigation into computationally simple methods of combining the visible and infrared images. In this paper we present a computationally simple image fusion technique based on the discrete Haar wavelet transform and apply the technique to combine three images from cameras operating in different wavelength bands. View full abstract»

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  • Stability analysis of a robust fuzzy vehicle steering control system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 382 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the stability for a fuzzy vehicle steering control system. In general, fuzzy control system is a nonlinear control system. Therefore, the fuzzy controller may be linearized by the use of describing function first. After then, the traditional frequency domain method i.e. parameter plane, is then applied to determine the condition of stability when the system has perturbed or adjustable parameters. A systematic procedure is proposed to solve this problem. The stability problem under the effects of plant parameters and control factors are both considered here. Furthermore, the effect of transport delay is also addressed. The limit cycles provided by a static fuzzy controller can be easily suppressed if the system parameters are chosen properly. Simulation results show the efficiency of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • RSVP II: a next generation automotive vector processor

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 563 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A large number of sensors (i.e., video, radar, laser, ultrasound, etc.) that continuously monitor the environment are finding their way in the average automobile. The algorithms processing the data captured by these sensors are streaming in nature and require a high rate of computation. Due to the characteristics of the automotive environment, this computation has to be delivered under very low energy and cost budgets. The reconfigurable streaming vector processing (RSVP™) architecture is a vector coprocessor architecture which accelerates streaming data processing. This paper presents the RSVP architecture and its second implementation, RSVP II. Our results show significant speedups on data streaming functions running compiled code. On a lane tracking application, RSVP II shows impressive performance results. From a performance/$ and performance/mW perspective, RSVP architecture compares favorably with leading DSP architectures. The time to market is substantially reduced due to ease of programmability, elimination of hand-tuned assembly code, and support for software re-use through binary compatibility across multiple implementations. View full abstract»

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  • Robots go automotive - the SPARC approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 478 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new concept for advanced driver assistance by means of a redundant architecture including all system components spanning from environment perception to vehicle controllers. The first part of this paper is an overview of the project framework and the research platforms. After that the elements of the architecture themselves will be described. The use of sensors and the fusion of their outputs will be presented. Different controllers will be used depending on the scenarios around the vehicle in order to provide a theoric solution. This solution will be downsized after that with a dynamic vehicle model to the feasible safe motion vectors. This list of motion vectors will be compared to the driver's command and will lead to the choose of his/her command or an other safe motion vector if the driver does not react convenient to the situation. The final part describes some preliminary results and concludes towards future work and research issues. View full abstract»

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  • Unified stereovision for ground, road, and obstacle detection

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 783 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for road detection and obstacle detection entirely based on stereovision. The ground plane is estimated online by least square fitting of disparity data. This operation allows deleting road features for obstacle detection, estimating directly camera roll and pitch, and deriving some clues on road-surface image regions. A model-based algorithm employing only disparity information is demonstrated to be able to segment the whole road surface without knowledge of infrastructures and features like lane markings. This helps navigation in suburban and country-road environments, and recovery from critical failure of lane-markings trackers. View full abstract»

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  • A method for following unmarked roads

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 650 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Road-following for ground vehicles has been widely studied and the solutions normally tracks line markings or a salient road edge. Most of the presented approaches are thus based on geometric or spectral models and does a fit of image data to the model to ensure robustness. For operation on unmarked roads under highly varying weather and light conditions a strategy is presented which is based on a probabilistic generative model. The method is evaluated on a number of test scenes and compared to well known methods from the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Robust object segmentation and parametrization of 3D lidar data

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 694 - 699
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article addresses the problem of robust signal processing of 3D lidar data prone to noise. After describing the characteristics of the lidar data given we describe how the data can be segmented in a robust manner. The approach is based on edge detection followed by region growing. We show how the segments can be described using parametric models. In the final step the segments are circumscribed using appropriate bounding objects. We motivate the individual steps of our approach and light up the mathematical background. View full abstract»

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  • Color-based detection of vehicle lights

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 278 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we present a first approach in the conception of a vision system dedicated to the detection of vehicles in reduced visibility conditions. It is based on a self-adaptive stereo vision extractor of 3D edges or obstacle and a color detection of vehicle lights. The detection of vehicle lights uses the L*a*b* color space. The vision system detects three kinds of vehicle lights: rear lights and rear-brake-lights; flashing and warning lights; reverse lights and headlights. View full abstract»

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  • Communication-based intersection assistance

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 308 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The approach of communication-based intersection assistance is described. Different technology scenarios were analyzed in a realistic traffic simulator to cover a wide time horizon and a wide area of system complexity. The results regarding the specification of the necessary communication technology are proposed. Additionally the different technology scenarios are assessed regarding to the expected user acceptance and their effect on traffic safety. The most important parameter for the reduction of intersection accidents is the equipment rate with communication-based intersection assistant systems. The starting point of the technology concepts is today's available communication technology. -Based on the presented simulation study two technology concepts for communication based intersection assistance are recommended. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-cue data fusion with particle filters for vehicle detection in night view automotive applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 753 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this contribution we present a sensor data fusing concept utilizing particle filters. The investigation aims at the development of a robust and easy to extend approach, capable of combining the information of different sensors. We use the particle filters characteristics and introduce weighting functions that are multiplied during the measurement update stage of the particle filter implementation. The concept is demonstrated in a vehicle detection system that conjoins symmetry detection, tail lamp detection and radar measurements in night vision applications. View full abstract»

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  • The application of genetic algorithm to dynamic traffic assignment

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 827 - 832
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the applications of genetic algorithms to dynamic traffic assignment are analyzed based on a dynamic traffic assignment variational inequality model and the condition of physical queue is studied in this model. A simple example is used to demonstrate the efficiency of the genetic algorithms. The conclusions and directions for future development about the application of genetic algorithm to traffic assignment are presented. View full abstract»

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  • OSGi-based service gateway architecture for intelligent automobiles

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 861 - 865
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the OSGi-based automotive specifications that improves the standard and integrates a great many existing automotive protocols and automotive networks. A key element of this specification is the OSGi-based automotive framework, which is open standard based, service-oriented infrastructure for provisioning, managing and developing telematics services. By using the technology of J2ME and extending the dynamic service deployment of OSGi, and integrating intelligent agent society, the mobile devices of automobile can access, download and use the various services from plenty of various service provider. The OSGi-based oriented-service automotive architecture is analyzed from the application and implementation points of view. Finally, the authors depict the tremendous benefits that OSGi platform technology offers in automotive networks and briefly discuss potential future work in this field. View full abstract»

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