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Rehabilitation Robotics, 2005. ICORR 2005. 9th International Conference on

Date June 28 2005-July 1 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 134
  • Executive Committee / Scientific Program Committee

    Page(s): i - iv
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  • About Chicago

    Page(s): 1 - 11
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): vi - xx
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  • Cross-cultural considerations in establishing roboethics for neuro-robot applications

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robot-user interfaces have become more intuitive as a direct consequence of the advances in computer interface design. Yet direct brain interfaces, made possible by recent advances in nano-technology and implanted cerebral electrode arrays, have the potential to eliminate these physical interfaces. However, direct brain interfaces may at the same time pose ethical questions related to the enhancement of human function through interpretation of thought processes alone. We have identified three issues that are core in the development of roboethics: how best to direct and pace the deployment and use of the technology; how to distinguish between, and perhaps as necessary redefine, what constitutes enhancement vs. functional compensation; and how to understand responsibility in a system where traditional man-machine boundaries are blurred. This paper discusses some of these issues against the backdrop of today's multi-cultural society. View full abstract»

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  • MR compatible ERF driven hand rehabilitation device

    Page(s): 7 - 12
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    This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary tests of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that will be used in fMRI studies of the brain and motor performance during rehabilitation after stroke. The device consists of four major subsystems: a) the electro-rheological fluid (ERF) resistive element; b) the gearbox; c) the handles and d) the sensors: one optical encoder and one force sensor attached to the ERF resistive element's shaft to measure the patient induced motion and force, respectively. A key feature of the device is the use of electro theological fluids (ERF) to achieve resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. Using the electrically controlled rheological properties of ERFs, compact resistive elements with an ability to supply high resistive torques in a controllable and tunable fashion, have been developed. Our preliminary tests demonstrate that the device can apply, on a human hand holding the device handles, resistive forces that exceed 150 N. In addition the activated ERF maintain its properties in the magnetic environment without creating degradation of the MR images. The results are encouraging in combining functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, with MR compatible robotic devices for improved effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. View full abstract»

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  • Wrist rehabilitation following stroke: initial clinical results

    Page(s): 13 - 16
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    In 1991, a novel robot named MIT-MANUS was introduced as a test bed to study the potential of using robots to assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. It introduced a new brand of therapy, offering a highly backdrivable mechanism with a soft and stable feel for the user. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent fit for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in these joints. The greater reduction in impairment was observed in the group of muscles exercised. This suggests a need for additional robots to rehabilitate other target areas of the body. The focus here is a robot for wrist rehabilitation designed to provide three rotational degrees of freedom. A previous paper at ICORR2003 and its companion book described the basic system design and characterization. In this paper we present clinical results from five (5) stroke patients. A comprehensive review of the wrist robot design, characterization, and initial clinical results are being submitted elsewhere (EEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering). View full abstract»

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  • A robotic device for hand motor therapy after stroke

    Page(s): 17 - 20
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    This paper describes the design of a robotic device - the hand-wrist assisting robotic device, or HWARD ("Howard") - that can assist functional grasping and releasing movements of the stroke-impaired hand. The 3 degrees-of-freedom device is pneumatically-actuated and backdriveable. The design of HWARD was guided by neurobiological principles of motor learning, such as sensorimotor integration, movement repetition, environmental complexity, and attention. Specifically, HWARD can assist repetitive grasping and releasing movements while allowing the subject to feel real objects during therapy. The use of real objects having rich sensory and functional characteristics can stimulate sensorimotor cortex activation while enhancing subject motivation and attention - features hypothesized to reduce impairment and disability. A pilot study tests the safety and efficacy of HWARD, with endpoints that include established motor function scales as well as brain mapping with functional MRI (fMRI). View full abstract»

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  • Hands-off assistive robotics for post-stroke arm rehabilitation

    Page(s): 21 - 24
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    This paper describes an autonomous assistive mobile robot that aids stroke patient rehabilitation by providing monitoring, encouragement, and reminders. The robot navigates autonomously, monitors the patient's arm activity, and helps the patient remember to follow a rehabilitation program. Our experiments show that patients post-stroke are positive about this approach and that increasingly active and animated robot behavior is positively received by stroke survivors. View full abstract»

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  • Eye-hand coordination assessment/therapy using a robotic haptic device

    Page(s): 25 - 28
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    In this paper we discuss the possibility of improving eye-hand coordination in children diagnosed with this problem, using a robotic mapping from a haptic user interface to a virtual environment. Our goal is to develop an assessment and training procedure that will result in improving handwriting taking advantage of the force feedback provided by the haptic device. We also incorporate inertia and viscosity effects to decrease the tremor in the hand as well as to stimulate the muscles involved in the task of holding a pencil (known as facilitation technique in the occupational therapy field). A set of assessment tests, commonly used by occupational therapists, were chosen to implement various functions using force, inertia and viscosity effects. The test bed used for these tasks consisted of a six-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting haptic interface device, PHANToM with the GHOST SDK Software. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of motor adaptation and limb posture regulation during arm reaching movements following stroke

    Page(s): 29 - 32
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    Whether attempting to pour water into a handheld glass, or simply trying to hold a young child's hand, many activities of daily living require interaction with unpredictable or uncertain mechanical environments. Here we describe a systems identification study that used a planar manipulandum to characterize how hemiparetic stroke survivors adapt reaching movements to novel mechanical environments. By analyzing trial-by-trial variations in hand path kinematics, we found that stroke survivors are less likely than neurologically-intact subjects to adjust motor commands for upcoming movements based on hand trajectory errors experienced on previous trials. This ability is most significantly compromised in subjects with Fugl-Meyer scores ≤ 20. The ability to terminate movement accurately at the desired target was significantly compromised on the impaired side for most stroke survivors. This measure of performance contrasts with the trajectory updating measure in that it did not depend on impairment level. These data suggest that stroke survivors vary in their ability to effectively adapt motor commands based on recent sensorimotor experience. The findings also provide indirect support for the hypothesis that final posture regulation and feedforward trajectory control are complimentary processes that may be differentially compromised following stroke. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of muscle synergies in the presence of arbitrary inputs

    Page(s): 33 - 36
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    The strategy the central nervous system utilizes to produce movements in the face of multiple degrees of freedom available has been a subject of study for the past few years. Of the possible mechanisms, the muscle synergies-stereotypical coordinated patterns of muscle activity elicited by dedicated networks have been suggested to be the building blocks. Based on this hypothesis, several algorithms have been proposed to discern these synergies from the recorded electromyographic signals (EMG). In the proposed model, the synergies are treated as filters (IRFs) that take as input any arbitrary non-negative signal. That is, the EMG is seen as a convolution mixture of synergies and corresponding inputs. View full abstract»

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  • Learning to perform a novel movement pattern using haptic guidance: slow learning, rapid forgetting, and attractor paths

    Page(s): 37 - 40
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    Mechanical guidance is a common technique to teach patients desired movement patterns during motor rehabilitation, but little is known about the motor learning processes involved with this technique. In this study we examined how well unimpaired subjects could learn to trace a novel path after they practiced it with mechanical guidance from a robot. The form of haptic guidance used was a virtual channel that constrained the hand to follow the desired path (a snake-like curve). Subjects substantially improved their ability to trace the path following practice with haptic guidance, relative to their performance following an initial visual demonstration. They slowly improved their performance with more haptic training. However, when asked to reproduce the path repeatedly, their performance degraded over the course of a few trials. The tracing errors were not random, but instead were consistent with a systematic evolution toward another path, as if being drawn to an "attractor path". These results suggest that haptic demonstration can improve short-term performance of a novel desired trajectory. However, in the short term, the motor system is inclined to repeat its mistakes following just a few movements without guidance. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a two degree-of-freedom ankle-foot orthosis for robotic rehabilitation

    Page(s): 41 - 44
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    An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is commonly used to help subjects with weakness of ankle dorsiflexor muscles due to peripheral or central nervous system disorders. Both these disorders are due to the weakness of the tibialis anterior muscle which results in lack of dorsiflexion assist moment. The deformity and muscle weakness of one joint in the lower extremity influences the stability of the adjacent joints, thereby requiring compensatory adaptations. We present an innovative ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that was designed to allow two degree-of-freedom motion while serving to maintain proper foot position for subjects. The prototype AFO would introduce greater functionality over currently marketed devices by means of its inversion-eversion degree-of-freedom in addition to flexion/extension. The flexion/extension is controlled with the help of an actuator and inversion/eversion with a spring and a damper. View full abstract»

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  • Use dependent plasticity in the corticospinal pathways controlling human arm movement

    Page(s): 45 - 48
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    We are investigating whether repetitive training, such as that used during rehabilitation interventions, can induce short term plasticity in the motor pathways controlling the proximal muscles of the human upper-limb. A ballistic, planar whole limb extension training routine has been employed in this study. This study uses transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to quantify user-dependent plasticity in proximal and distal muscles throughout the upper-limb. Previous studies have shown consistent training induced plasticity in distal upper-limb muscles and proximal muscles with altered somatosensory input. This study demonstrates that whole limb motions can generate short term plastic effects in proximal upper-limb muscles, though results have not been consistent. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis of the EMG patterns of six major hand grasps

    Page(s): 49 - 52
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    We seek to quantify the electromyographic similarities and differences between six major grasping patterns of the human hand: cylindrical, hook, palmar, lateral, spherical, and tip. Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) is a data reduction technique that allows continuous membership, on a [0,1] interval, of data points in the representative clusters. We found no grasp to be completely distinct from any other grasp, and found significant overlap of characteristics between several grasps. This overlap is quantified and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A 3-D rehabilitation system for upper limbs developed in a 5-year NEDO project and its clinical testing

    Page(s): 53 - 56
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    New training methods and exercises for upper limbs rehabilitation can be developed using robotics and virtual reality technologies. The technologies can make quantitative evaluations and enhance the qualitative effect of trainings. We have developed a 3D exercise machine for upper limbs (EMUL) with special actuators using electrorheological (ER) fluid. The ER actuator is composed of an ER clutch and its driven mechanism consisting of a motor and a reduction-gear unit, and we can ensure safety of patients mechanically by using them. This paper deals with the development of EMUL. We also present the development of software for motion exercise trainings and some results of clinical evaluation. View full abstract»

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  • ARMin - design of a novel arm rehabilitation robot

    Page(s): 57 - 60
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    Task-oriented repetitive movement can improve movement performance in patients with neurological or orthopaedic lesions. The application of robotics can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate, and document neurological and orthopaedic rehabilitation of movements. ARMin is a new robot for arm therapy applicable to the training of activities of daily living in clinics. ARMin has a semi-exoskeleton structure with six degrees of freedom, and is equipped with position and force sensors. The mechanical structure, the actuators and the sensors of the robot are optimized for patient-cooperative control strategies based on impedance and admittance architecture. This paper describes the new robot, the mechanical structure, the control circuit, the sensors and actuators and some safety aspects. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a dual robotic system for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation

    Page(s): 61 - 65
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    Stroke is a common condition resulting in 30,000 people per annum left with significant disability. In patients with severe arm paresis after stroke, functional recovery in the affected arm is poor. Inadequate intensity of treatment is cited as one factor accounting for the lack arm recovery found in some studies. Given that physical therapy resource is limited, strategies to enhance the physiotherapists' efforts are needed. One approach is to use robotic techniques to augment movement therapy. Kinematic analysis of upper limb movement during a patient's physiotherapy session was used to determine the appropriate therapeutic workspace. An existing single robot arm is adapted to optimize its operating area to allow full movement in this desired workspace. The kinematic data is also used to look at the constraints involved in attaching two robot arms to the user's forearm and upper arm. An optimized design and configuration of the dual robot arms is proposed that allows appropriate control of the patient's arm throughout the desired workspace. View full abstract»

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  • Linear and circular tracking exercises in haptic virtual environments for hand control assessment

    Page(s): 66 - 69
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    Objective tracking tests for evaluating the functional studies of the upper limbs (UL) in patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) and neurological disorders (ND) are presented. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of upper limb functional state uses the Phantom 1.5. The measurement setup consists of a powerful virtual reality simulator, capable of providing quality haptic, visual and audio feedback in two different tracking tasks/exercises. The Phantom 1.5 haptic interface serves as a kinematic measuring device and as a force feedback generator, providing disturbance forces to the patient. The method has been applied to 75 patients with various forms of NMD and ND as well as to 19 healthy subjects. Some typical characteristics of the upper limb movement, affected by neuro-muscular disorders are shown in a quantitative manner. Data mining was used to demonstrate good content validity of the proposed tests. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic implications of learned non-use for robotic therapy

    Page(s): 70 - 73
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    Learned non-use (LNU) may be a measure of carry-over and a potential measure for determining the efficacy of robot-based training for stroke rehabilitation. Identifying sensitive and reliable measures for detecting LNU would help evaluate whether robot training consistently reduced both motor impairment and functional disability after stroke-induced hemiplegia. We report on investigations into the relationship between LNU and four kinematic metrics commonly used to characterize impaired arm movements in Cartesian space during functional reaching. Results indicate that movement time, peak velocity, total displacement and movement smoothness accounted for less that 17% of the variability in LNU scores. A metric, derived from changes in impaired arm kinematic scores between unilateral and bilateral functional reaches, did not improve the prediction of LNU. Objectively quantifying LNU may require kinetic and kinematic metrics that measure proximal and distal sensory and motor impairment. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of perturbations for gait rehabilitation robots

    Page(s): 74 - 77
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    Perturbations are an important measure to improve gait training and to investigate the learning success of stroke patients during rehabilitation. This paper describes the development and implementation of algorithms for the synthesis of perturbations during gait training on a robotic walking simulator. The perturbation algorithm performs an automatic on-line adaptation of the robot motion override. Hence, it is independent from the type of motion interpolation which the robot motion is based on. Perturbations we have implemented so far include stumbling, i.e. hitting an obstacle during swing phase, and slipping, i.e. sliding on an obstacle during stance phase. An additional catch-up control algorithm ensures that both feet will regain synchronous motion again after the event The algorithms have been implemented in the control software of the HapticWalker, a programmable footplate based human walking simulator for gait rehabilitation, which we have developed. So far a number of healthy subjects have successfully tested the algorithms on the simulator. Clinical trials will follow. View full abstract»

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  • Control system for pneumatically controlled glove to assist in grasp activities

    Page(s): 78 - 81
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    A pneumatically controlled glove has been developed at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago in order to study its use on improving hand functions for individuals with hand impairment following stroke. The methods of the control system and glove design are presented in this article. Preliminary data has been collected on neurologically healthy subjects to demonstrate the training regime, and also to show the ability of the glove to assist in extending the fingers for grasping objects. Data from a stroke survivor who completed training is also shown. View full abstract»

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  • Field test of a force control rehabilitation system for quantitative evaluation of the disorder in the upper extremities

    Page(s): 82 - 85
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    This paper reports on a field test of our simple force-sensor-based rehabilitation device that can be handled at homes or neighboring medical institutions. We propose a tri-axial load cell controller system for quantitatively evaluating the visually guided motor control characteristic of a weak palsy arm. The result is recorded in the database while evaluation is presented for each trial. The system is tested at an orthopedic clinic with outpatients: cervical spinal cord injured patient and 2 other cases. Their mid-term testing results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of tracking performance using joystick manipulators that engage different arm workspaces

    Page(s): 86 - 90
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    Robotic devices, especially those that are motivating, have shown a great deal of potential for use in upper-extremity stroke rehabilitation. The TheraJoy project aims at designing a cost efficient device for use in home therapy. This has involved altering a commercial force-reflecting joystick by lengthening the joystick shaft to encompass a larger range of horizontal motion, adding a vertical linkage system to add vertical arm movements, and adding springs to support the application of light passive and actuated forces. This system has been used in conjunction with specially designed software to study both assessment and therapeutic tasks. As the endpoint for each linkage moves in an arc that is nearly a plane, there is a need to generate expectations for tracking patterns for each manipulator. This study evaluates movements in able-bodied subjects for strategic tracking tasks. A key observation is that the non-dominant hand displays both longer reaction and movement times and also greater and more consistent deviations from straight-line paths over certain ranges and directions. View full abstract»

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  • The clinical application of the upper extremity compound movements rehabilitation training robot

    Page(s): 91 - 94
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    In order to estimate the effect of neural rehabilitation robot for improving the upper extremity motor function, 23 hemiplegia patients who are BrunnstromTII at least receive clinical rehabilitation training by the upper extremity compound movements rehabilitation training robot. The assistance models of the neural rehabilitation robot and the programming of the clinical rehabilitation training are studied in this dissertation. The clinical assessment results make clear that after a period of rehabilitation treatment, the function of most patients, which could be assessed by Fugl-Meyer method, improved to a certain extent, and the rehabilitation effect is better than the traditional rehabilitation training. The outcome indicates that, the upper extremity compound movements rehabilitation training robot has a significant application prospect in clinical rehabilitation. View full abstract»

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