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Optical-Damage-Resistant Highly Er ^{\bf {3+}} -Doped Ti:Er:LiNbO _{\bf 3} Strip Waveguide

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6 Author(s)
De-Long Zhang ; Key Lab. of Optoelectron. Inf. Technol., Tianjin Univ., Tianjin, China ; Fang Han ; Bei Chen ; Ping-Rang Hua
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We report optical-damage-resistant Ti:Er:LiNbO3 strip waveguide with high diffusion-doped surface Er3+ concentration. The waveguide was fabricated starting from a commercial X-cut congruent LiNbO3 plate with a two-step technological process in sequence of simultaneous work of Er3+ diffusion doping and Li-poor vapor transport equilibration treatment, and fabrication of 6-μm-wide Ti-diffused strip waveguide (Z-propagation). The waveguide retains still the LiNbO3 phase and has the waveguiding characteristics similar to the conventional Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide except with a larger loss due to the imperfection of waveguide. Secondary ion mass spectrometry study shows that the Er3+ diffusion reservoir was exhausted and the profile is the desired Gaussian-type with a surface concentration 1.0 mol%, which is about two times larger than the value of conventional Ti:Er:LiNbO3 amplifier. Further optical characterization shows that the waveguide shows stable 1547 nm small-signal gain under the 980 nm pumping without serious photorefractive effect observed. An unsaturated gain 1.7 dB/cm is obtained for the available coupled pump power of 160 mW. With increased pump power, optimized Er3+ diffusion condition and degraded loss figure, a higher gain is expected.

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:32 ,  Issue: 1 )