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Induction coil guns are a class of launchers that utilize electromagnetic energy to promote the armature. During launching, the driving coil and the armature will generate a lot of heat which can make the drive coil and the armature melt, thereby affecting the normal work of the entire induction coil gun. However, it is quite difficult to accurately describe the temperature variation of the induction coil gun because of the complexity of its structure. So, the temperature of the launcher is analyzed using the finite element method in this paper. The launcher temperature simulation model is built using ANSYS software, and the temperature distribution of the drive coil and armature is analyzed using the load transfer method. The simulation results show that, without considering magnetoresistance effect and skin effect, the temperature distribution of the drive coil is uniform; the temperature rise of the armature is mainly on the outer surface and in the tail. Finally, the launcher temperature measurement experimental platform is set up and the temperatures of key points are measured, thereby verifying the simulation results.