Skip to Main Content
This paper presents a robust image watermarking scheme based on a sample projection approach. While we consider the human visual system in our watermarking algorithm, we use the low-frequency components of image blocks for data hiding to obtain high robustness against attacks. We use four samples of the approximation coefficients of the image blocks to construct a line segment in the 2-D space. The slope of this line segment, which is invariant to the gain factor, is employed for watermarking purpose. We embed the watermarking code by projecting the line segment on some specific lines according to message bits. To design a maximum likelihood decoder, we compute the distribution of the slope of the embedding line segment for Gaussian samples. The performance of the proposed technique is analytically investigated and verified via several simulations. Experimental results confirm the validity of our model and its high robustness against common attacks in comparison with similar watermarking techniques that are invariant to the gain attack.
Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:6 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2011