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We present synthesis and in-situ doping of several important n-type and p-type compound semiconductor 1D nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition method, and the nanoelectronic and nanophotonic prototype devices based on these nanomaterials. Various high performance nanoelectronic devices, including metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (FETs), metal-semiconductor FETs, and NOT, NOR and NAND logic gates based on FETs, have been fabricated and studied. Various NW (NB)/p+-Si heterojunction electroluminescence devices have been fabricated and studied. CdS NW ring cavities were fabricated and a straight CdS NW with Fabry-Perot cavity structure was employed to couple the light out from the ring cavity.