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The 3-D pendulum consists of a rigid body, supported at a fixed pivot, with three rotational degrees of freedom; it is acted on by gravity and it is fully actuated by control forces. The 3-D pendulum has two disjoint equilibrium manifolds, namely a hanging equilibrium manifold and an inverted equilibrium manifold. The contribution of this paper is that two fundamental stabilization problems for the inverted 3-D pendulum are posed and solved. The first problem, asymptotic stabilization of a specified equilibrium in the inverted equilibrium manifold, is solved using smooth and globally defined feedback of angular velocity and attitude of the 3-D pendulum. The second problem, asymptotic stabilization of the inverted equilibrium manifold, is solved using smooth and globally defined feedback of angular velocity and a reduced attitude vector of the 3-D pendulum. These control problems for the 3-D pendulum exemplify attitude stabilization problems on the configuration manifold SO(3) in the presence of potential forces. Lyapunov analysis and nonlinear geometric methods are used to assess global closed-loop properties, yielding a characterization of the almost global domain of attraction for each case.