By Topic

Impact of Die-to-Die and Within-Die Parameter Variations on the Clock Frequency and Throughput of Multi-Core Processors

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

4 Author(s)

A statistical performance simulator is developed to explore the impact of parameter variations on the maximum clock frequency (FMAX) and throughput distributions of multi-core processors in a future 22 nm technology. The simulator captures the effects of die-to-die (D2D) and within-die (WID) transistor and interconnect parameter variations on critical path delays in a die. A key component of the simulator is an analytical multi-core processor throughput model, which enables computationally efficient and accurate throughput calculations, as compared with cycle-accurate performance simulators, for single-threaded and highly parallel multi-threaded (MT) workloads. Based on microarchitecture designs from previous microprocessors, three multi-core processors with either small, medium, or large cores are projected for the 22 nm technology generation to investigate a range of design options. These three multi-core processors are optimized for maximum throughput within a constant die area. A traditional single-core processor is also scaled to the 22 nm technology to provide a baseline comparison. The salient contributions from this paper are: 1) product-level variation analysis for multi-core processors must focus on throughput, rather than just FMAX, and 2) multi-core processors are more variation tolerant than single-core processors due to the larger impact of memory latency and bandwidth on throughput. To elucidate these two points, statistical simulations indicate that multi-core and single-core processors with an equivalent total core area have similar FMAX distributions (mean degradation of 9% and standard deviation of 5%) for MT applications. In contrast to single-core processors, memory latency and bandwidth constraints significantly limit the throughput dependency on FMAX in multi-core processors, thus reducing the throughput mean degradation and standard deviation by ~50% for the small and medium core designs and by ~30% for the large core design. This impr- - ovement in the throughput distribution indicates that multi-core processors could significantly reduce the product design and process development complexities due to parameter variations as compared to single-core processors, enabling faster time to market for high-performance microprocessor products.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems  (Volume:17 ,  Issue: 12 )