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The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the worldwide set of satellite navigation constellations, civil aviation augmentations, and user equipment. This paper reviews the current status and future plans of the elements of GNSS as it pertains to civil aviation. The paper addresses the following satellite navigation systems: the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS), Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, Chinese Compass, Japanese Quasi Zenith Satellite System, and Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System. The paper also describes aviation augmentations including aircraft-based, satellite-based, ground-based, and ground-based regional augmentation systems defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Lastly, this paper details typical user equipment configurations and civil aviation applications of GNSS including navigation, automatic dependent surveillance, terrain awareness warning systems, and timing.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2008