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InAs quantum-dash structures fabricated by self-assembly growth techniques and based on compound semiconductors lattice matched to InP substrates were used to realize long wavelength lasers and amplifiers for telecom applications. With this new type of laser material special properties of low-dimensional electronic systems can be utilized for device applications, which allow to realize new device features not possible by conventional device designs. In this paper a brief overview is given about application oriented material and device research on this wire/dot-like material system by highlighting laser and high-speed optical amplifiers. Broadband laser material with a gain bandwidth of more than 300 nm could be obtained to cover the extended telecommunication wavelength range between 1.4 and 1.65 . High-speed optical amplifiers could be realized by using this quantum-dash laser material with unique device performance, like multiwavelength amplification without any cross-talk at data rates of 10 Gbit/s and pattern-free and noise reduced signal amplification at saturation condition demonstrated up to 40 Gbit/s.