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Challenges of Raman Amplification

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4 Author(s)
S. Namiki ; Nat. Inst. of Adv. Ind. Sci. & Technol., Japan ; Koji Seo ; N. Tsukiji ; S. Shikii

Raman amplifiers are often regarded as a typical example of technologies rapidly developed in the midst of turmoil created by the so-called wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) bubble. Indeed, Raman amplifiers turned out to be technically very attractive in all the aspects of capacity, reach, and bit rate. Even though Raman amplifiers are actually being deployed into systems in commercial service, the practical issues, such as cost, reliability and safety, are yet to be further discussed, particularly for the configuration of distributed amplification. After summarizing the advantages of Raman amplification and reviewing pump laser technologies, this paper will highlight ongoing efforts on practical issues, which include reliability and safety issues of fiber under high-power operations. Finally, it is concluded that by overcoming the above-mentioned practical issues, Raman amplification will stay as a key technology for future optical communications because of its compelling unique advantages

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:94 ,  Issue: 5 )