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Recently, the development of data hiding techniques to hide annotations, confidential data, or side information into multimedia attracts the attention of researchers in various fields, especially in digital library. One of the essential tasks in digital library is the digitization of arts together with the corresponding textural descriptions. The purpose of data hiding is to embed relating textural description into the image to form an embedded image instead of two separate files (text file and image file). The hidden textural description and the original host image can be extracted and reconstructed from the embedded image in the reverse data extraction process. However, the reconstructed host image will more or less be distorted by utilizing traditional data hiding methods. In this paper, we propose a novel lossless data hiding method based on pixel decomposition and pair-wise logical computation. In addition to the lossless reconstruction of original host images, the results generated by the proposed method can also obtain high data hiding capacity and good visual quality. Furthermore, the task of tampering detection can also be achieved in the proposed method to ensure content authentication. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.