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This paper is a review of the properties of the more important piezoelectric materials. Section I discusses the basic principles of the phenomena of piezoelectricity and elasticity from the standpoint of crystal physics. Section II is a brief account of the electrical measurements of piezoelectric vibrators which are required to determine the basic parameters defining the piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric properties of the material. Sections III and IV, respectively, give the properties of a range of piezoelectric crystals and ceramics including, in the most important cases, some of the derived properties which affect the use of the materials in practical devices. It is concluded that it is unlikely that new piezoelectric crystals will be found to replace those in use at present for frequency control and selection but that there is greater scope for new piezoelectric ceramics for use as electromechanical transducers or as frequency selective elements where the highest stability is not required.