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The inherent computational complexity of polygon decomposition problems is of theoretical interest to researchers in the field of computational geometry and of practical interest to those working in syntactic pattern recognition. Three polygon decomposition problems are shown to be NP-hard and thus unlikely to admit efficient algorithms. The problems are to find minimum decompositions of a polygonal region into (perhaps overlapping) convex, star-shaped, or spiral subsets. We permit the polygonal region to contain holes. The proofs are by transformation from Boolean three-satisfiability, a known NP-complete problem. Several open problems are discussed.