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One of the major design verification challenges in the development of Anton, a massively parallel special-purpose machine for molecular dynamics, was to provide evidence that computations spanning more than a quadrillion clock cycles will produce valid scientific results. Our verification methodology addressed this problem by using a hierarchy of RTL, architectural, and numerical simulations. Block- and chip-level RTL models were verified by means of extensive co-simulation with a detailed C++ architectural simulator, ensuring that the RTL models could perform the same molecular dynamics computations as the architectural simulator. The output of the architectural simulator was compared to a parallelized numerical simulator that produces bitwise identical results to Anton, and is fast enough to verify the long-term numerical stability of computations on Anton. These explicit couplings between adjacent levels of the simulation hierarchy created a continuous verification chain from molecular dynamics to individual logic gates.