Towards 5G:Applications, Requirements and Candidate Technologies

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2017
Author(s): Rath Vannithamby; Shilpa Talwar
Book Type: Wiley Telecom
Content Type : Books
Topics: Aerospace ;  Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics ;  Photonics & Electro-Optics ;  Signal Processing & Analysis ;  Transportation
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Abstract

This book brings together a group of visionaries and technical experts from academia to industry to discuss the applications and technologies that will comprise the next set of cellular advancements (5G).  In particular, the authors explore usages for future 5G communications, key metrics for these usages with their target requirements, and network architectures and enabling technologies to meet 5G requirements. The objective is to provide a comprehensive guide on the emerging trends in mobile applications, and the challenges of supporting such applications with 4G technologies.

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      Front Matter

      Copyright Year: 2017

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      This book brings together a group of visionaries and technical experts from academia to industry to discuss the applications and technologies that will comprise the next set of cellular advancements (5G).  In particular, the authors explore usages for future 5G communications, key metrics for these usages with their target requirements, and network architectures and enabling technologies to meet 5G requirements. The objective is to provide a comprehensive guide on the emerging trends in mobile applications, and the challenges of supporting such applications with 4G technologies.

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      Introduction

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      As the title suggests, “Towards 5G: Applications, Requirements, and Candidate Technologies”, this book will provide a comprehensive guide to the emerging application trends and usages in wireless, the capacity and quality requirements that will be imposed on future networks, and the fundamental technical design concepts, deployment architectures, and algorithms that will be needed to meet 5G requirements. It is expected that some of the new concepts comprising 5G will be evolutionary, while some of them will be disruptive or “revolutionary”, requiring fundamentally new thinking. The book will cover the challenges and gaps in 4G networks today, and provide insights on both evolutionary and revolutionary technologies that will comprise 5G networks and devices. View full abstract»

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      5G Requirements

      Copyright Year: 2017

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      Next‐generation mobile communications networks (5G) have gained interest worldwide, as evidenced by the acceleration of efforts by governmental entities and research bodies from both academia and industry, for example ITU‐R, METIS/METIS‐II, 5GMF, and NGMN. In this chapter, we first explain the emerging market trends and services of recent years, which have the potential to drive and change the landscape of the future mobile market, from 2020 and beyond. In particular, we show how a wide variety of services and use cases ranging from mobile broadband services requiring very high data rates, to massive M2M services with small packets but very large numbers of devices, to low‐latency cloud services need to be supported in the future. Then, we discuss the high‐level performance targets and requirements that are considered the most relevant for the 5G network. View full abstract»

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      Collaborative 5G Research within the EU Framework of Funded Research

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      This chapter provides insights into the EU framework of collaborative funded research. The European Union has a history of coordinating research programs with the aim of fostering innovation in Europe. After a brief look into this history, the following sections describe the EU bodies involved, and the way research projects are selected and operated. The current program and its importance for 5G is described and the introduction of public private partnerships is explained. Finally other frameworks for EU research are described. View full abstract»

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      5G

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      The Intel Strategic Research Alliance (ISRA) on 5G technologies, also known as “5G: Transforming the User Experience”, is a major university research effort exploring candidate technologies for tomorrow's wireless networks. In this chapter, we first review Intel's vision for 5G technologies and key areas of research that are needed to realize this vision. We then discuss objectives and goals for research, including metrics that can be used to measure wireless technology advancements and compare alternative approaches. Finally, we summarize the eight projects that were part of the multi‐million‐dollar research effort, listing participating researchers and summarizing their research agendas. View full abstract»

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      Towards Green and Soft

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      Wireless communication systems have been developing from the first generation (1G) to the latest, fourth generation (4G) to satisfy ever increasing and more diverse mobile traffic demand. The thousand‐fold wireless traffic increase anticipated by 2020 and the global recognition of the importance of green communications, however, pose very tough challenges for fifth generation (5G) design. The design metric of spectrum efficiency (SE) maximization, which was highly emphasized in previous communication systems, will have to be jointly pursued with, amongst other metrics, energy efficiency (EE). In this chapter, we will describe green network design considerations from the perspective of network architecture, signaling and control, and high SE and EE transmission techniques. The motivations, requirements, and worldwide activities for green radio are introduced, and one particular EE and SE co‐design framework is presented for link‐level optimization. The impact of system parameters such as frequency bandwidth, total power, antenna number, and transceiver number on EE–SE performance is analyzed. Promising 5G technologies, such as large scale antenna systems and non‐orthogonal multiple access are investigated in terms of EE–SE co‐design. To satisfy user requirements, future networks should be user‐centric rather than cell‐centric, thus leading to 5G networks with “no more cells”. C‐RAN, a soft radio access architecture and an enabling element for 5G key technologies, is presented, describing how the baseband is centralized and virtualized to flexibly allocate resource and manage interference to save both radiated and circuit power. Since the future network will be more heterogeneous, with fluctuating traffic volumes and diversified services, a fundamental rethinking of signaling and control design in 5G is necessitated to facilitate energy saving. Finally, an aggregator‐based signaling optimization scheme that can accommodate trillions of wireless nodes in the Internet of Things is described. It is anticipated that 5G networks and beyond will be softer and greener. View full abstract»

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      Proactive Caching in 5G Small Cell Networks

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      Massive deployment of small cell base stations (SBSs) is going to play a key role for capacity and coverage enhancements in 5G networks. However, the backhaul for these networks remains an important issue. Ideally, the capacity of backhaul has to be of the same order as wireless links in order to avoid bottlenecks in the delivery and sustain the huge traffic generated by mobile users, especially due to video streaming and content sharing in social networks. In reality, the deployment of such high‐speed backhauls is not straightforward due to its costly nature. Thus, one promising way of tackling this backhaul bottleneck and satisfying users' demand is to cache strategic content at the edge of the network, namely at the SBSs and user terminals. So far, most solutions have been based on the reactive networking paradigm, in which users' content requests are served immediately upon their arrival, causing outages otherwise. In this chapter, we first provide an overview of recent research in small cell networks (SCNs), and then explore the novel paradigm of proactive caching in SCNs, which leverages the latest developments in storage, context‐awareness, and social networking. With this approach, we show that important gains can be obtained, with backhaul offloading and higher ratios of satisfied users reaching to 22% and 26%, respectively. View full abstract»

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      Modeling Multi‐Radio Coordination and Integration in Converged Heterogeneous Networks

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      In recent years, analysts have been predicting strong and continuous increases in mobile traffic, causing industry and academia to seek methods to improve wireless network capacity. As a result, heterogeneous multi‐radio networks have emerged as novel network architectures. These consist of hierarchical deployments of increasingly smaller cells. Another recent method of providing significant wireless capacity gains is creating “ad hoc” small cells based on direct connections between proximate user devices.In the envisioned fifth‐generation (5G) heterogeneous deployments, each user device will employ multiple radio access technologies for communicating with the network infrastructure or other proximate devices. With the growing numbers of such multi‐radio consumer devices, network operators are increasingly willing to leverage spectrum across diverse radio technologies to boost capacity and enhance quality of service. In this chapter, we review major challenges in delivering uniform connectivity and service experience to converged multi‐radio heterogeneous deployments, including device‐to‐device communications capability, and with a particular emphasis on comprehensive multi‐radio integration and link selection.We propose that devices be continually associated with the cellular infrastructure and use this connectivity to help manage their unlicensed‐band connections. To this end, we anticipate that multiple radios and the associated device/infrastructure intelligence for their efficient use will become a fundamental characteristic of future 5G technologies. Distributed unlicensed‐band networks, such as WiFi, may take advantage of the centralized control function r esiding in cellular networks such as 3GPP LTE. In particular, we demonstrate that assisted offloading of cellular user sessions onto the unlicensed spectrum improves the degree of spatial reuse and reduces the impact of interference. View full abstract»

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      Distributed Resource Allocation in 5G Cellular Networks

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      Future wireless networks are expected to be highly heterogeneous, with the co‐existence of macrocells and small cells as well as the provisioning for device‐to‐device communication. In such heterogeneous and multi‐tier systems, centralized radio resource allocation and interference management schemes will not be scalable. Therefore, distributed resource allocation schemes will need to be designed. However, designing such distributed schemes is one of the fundamental research challenges for 5G multi‐tier cellular wireless networks. After a brief overview of 5G cellular systems, this chapter highlights three novel approaches that can be used to solve the distributed‐resource allocation problems in future heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we utilize the concepts of stable matching, factor‐graph‐based message passing, and distributed auctions and show their effectiveness in obtaining distributed solutions to the resource allocation problem. To this end, a brief qualitative comparison in terms of performance metrics, such as complexity, convergence, and signaling overhead, is presented. View full abstract»

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      Device‐to‐Device Communications

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      Device‐to‐device communications, where mobile devices communicate directly with each other, can augment device‐to‐infrastructure communications to greatly improve performance of cellular systems. This chapter provides an overview of the key technical challenges and solutions. It first discusses the propagation channels for direct device links. We then describe methods for the devices to discover their neighbors, and estimate the channels between them. Next, we describe how to decide whether devices should talk to each other directly or use the infrastructure nodes, and how to allocate resources (bandwidth, power) to them, as well as how to schedule their transmissions. A discussion of standardized systems, as well as popular applications (including the key aspect of video distribution) round off this chapter. View full abstract»

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      Energy‐efficient Wireless OFDMA Networks

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      This chapter focuses on energy‐efficient (EE) transmission and resource‐allocation techniques for OFDMA networks. The origin of EE wireless networks is first reviewed, and some interesting open problems in the area are also discussed. Then, the fundamental principles of EE design for OFDMA networks are discussed. As the first step, the fundamental interrelationship between EE and spectral efficiency (SE) in downlink OFDMA networks is investigated and the impacts of channel gain and circuit power on the EE–SE relationship are analyzed. Next, a general EE–SE optimization framework is proposed, where the overall EE, SE and per‐user quality‐of‐service are all considered. Under this framework, EE proves to be quasiconcave in SE and decreases with SE when SE is large enough. Finally, the tradeoff between EE and delay for delay‐sensitive traffic in downlink OFDMA networks is analyzed by integrating information theory with the concept of effective capacity. The relationship between spectrum‐efficient and energy‐efficient designs, and the impact of system parameters, including circuit power and delay exponents, on the overall performance are also discussed. View full abstract»

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      Advanced Multiple‐access and MIMO Techniques

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      In this chapter, we present advanced schemes for the evolution of multiple access and MIMO. In particular, non‐orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and smart vertical MIMO (SV‐MIMO) are introduced as new advanced interference management and MIMO schemes to enable future enhancements of spectrum efficiency. Both schemes aim to improve spectrum utilization efficiency without the need to install new antenna equipment. NOMA superposes multiple users in the power domain and exploits the channel‐gain differences among multiplexed users, while SV‐MIMO performs 3D MIMO transmission using antenna elements that are adaptively grouped vertically according to the type of signal or channel quality at the receiving mobile terminal. Regarding NOMA, we present our design concept and its performance gains over traditional OFDMA. Regarding SV‐MIMO, we describe the characteristics of adaptive mode selection, system‐level simulation results, and our experimental results, and compare its performance gains over conventional systems without adaptive antenna grouping. View full abstract»

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      M2M Communications

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      Machine‐to‐machine (M2M) communication will enable billions of devices to be connected to each other as part of the Internet of Things. In this chapter, we provide an overview of cellular M2M communications and discuss potential solutions for serving M2M traffic. In the 2020 timeframe, 4G LTE will remain an important technology for massive M2M due to its wide area network, mature ecosystem, high reliability, high performance and robust features. We will describe the LTE path to serving low data‐rate and delay‐tolerant M2M services, including the introduction of low‐cost devices and features to enhance coverage and battery life. In addition, we will discuss how a 5G system using spectrum above 6 GHz can be used to serve mission‐critical M2M services that require ultra‐low latency, ultra‐high reliability, and extremely high throughput. View full abstract»

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      Low‐latency Radio‐interface Perspectives for Small‐cell 5G Networks

      Copyright Year: 2017

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      The exponential growth projections for mobile data traffic have initiated a significant research effort on 5G wireless access. The 5G solutions should provide at least a tenfold reduction in latency, a tenfold improvement in peak data rates, a hundredfold improvement in area capacity, and a thousandfold improvement in energy efficiency over 4G solutions. Several innovations and new concepts of network layers, protocol layers, and hardware are required to achieve these targets. In this chapter, we consider one option for a new centimeter‐wave radio interface for 5G, which will support dense small‐cell networks and ultra‐low‐latency communications. We start by describing the expected channel environments for below‐6‐GHz carriers and for 38‐GHz and 60‐GHz carriers. Then we briefly discuss the traffic expectations and ways of modeling the traffic. Based on these, we define requirements for a new frame design and discuss our new physical layer numerology and frame design entitled 5GETLA. We provide a detailed description of how sub‐millisecond round‐trip‐times are achieved with our design and explain how reduced latency leads to improved energy and spectral efficiency. We also discuss the multiple‐input multiple‐output reference symbol layout and show that significant overhead savings can be achieved when compared to LTE‐A. Finally, we extend the reference frame design to millimeter‐wave communications and describe two designs: one for line‐of‐sight and one for non‐line‐of‐sight communications. These designs provide ultra‐low latency and ultra‐dense spatial reuse wireless access with multi‐gigabit data rates for end users. In the conclusion, we wrap‐up the discussion related to the new low‐latency radio interfaces and indicate the most important open topics for research in the area of low‐latency 5G physical layer design for ultra‐dense small‐cell communications. View full abstract»

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      New Physical‐layer Waveforms for 5G

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      This chapter provides fundamental indications about wireless communications beyond LTE/LTE‐A (5G). We start by identifying the drivers for making the transition to 5G networks, and we make clear that the strict paradigm of synchronism and orthogonality as applied in LTE prevents efficiency and scalability. We challenge this paradigm and propose new key PHY‐layer technology components, the core being a unified frame structure concept, which supports an integrated 5G air interface, capable of dealing both with broadband data services and small packet services within the same band. It is essential for this concept to introduce waveforms that are more robust than OFDM, for example with respect to time‐frequency misalignment. Encouraging candidate waveform technologies are presented and discussed with their respective results. This goes along with the corresponding multiple access technologies, using multi‐layered signals and advanced multi‐user receivers. In addition, we introduce new strategies to enable “one shot transmission”, with greatly reduced control signaling, particularly for sporadic traffic. These components enable an efficient and scalable air interface supporting the highly varying set of requirements originating from the 5G drivers. View full abstract»

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      Massive MIMO Communications

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      Over the last two decades, multiple‐input, multiple‐output (MIMO) technology has been successfully deployed on a wide scale in cellular communication systems. MIMO technology involves the use of multiple antennas at one or both ends of a communication link to boost the performance and reliability through strategies such as beamforming, diversity transmission, spatial multiplexing, and interference suppression. The currently‐deployed 4G/LTE cellular standards (LTE Rel‐8/9/10) support a comprehensive suite of MIMO techniques for up to eight antenna ports in a single sector on the downlink and up to four transmit antennas at a mobile station.For 5G cellular communications, massive MIMO, sometimes called full dimension MIMO, is a promising technology for enhancing system performance for frequency bands ranging from under 6 GHz to 100 GHz. Also, for 5G systems deployed in higher frequency bands such as cmWaves (6–30 GHz) and mmWaves (30–100GHz), large‐scale antenna arrays will be a prerequisite for overcoming the poor propagation characteristics in those bands.This chapter will describe the basics of massive MIMO and how it will satisfy the high‐data‐rate demands of 5G cellular systems for frequency bands up to 100 GHz. The current state of the art of MIMO technology are reviewed, and the application of large‐scale antenna arrays to 5G are described. The chapter also surveys current trends in massive MIMO technology and system concepts, with a focus on methodologies for significantly enhancing cellular system performance. Various trends and promising concepts are identified, and various practical issues highligh ted. View full abstract»

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      Full‐duplex Radios

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      This chapter presents the design and implementation of the first in‐band full‐duplex WiFi radios that can simultaneously transmit and receive on the same channel using standard WiFi 802.11 ac PHYs and achieves close to the theoretical doubling of throughput in all practical deployment scenarios. Our design uses a single antenna for simultaneous TX/RX (the same resources as a standard half‐duplex system). We also propose novel analog and digital cancellation techniques that remove the self‐interference to the receiver noise floor, and therefore ensure that there is no degradation to the received signal. We prototype our design by building our own analog circuit boards and integrating them with a fully WiFi–PHY compatible software radio implementation. We show experimentally that our design works robustly in noisy indoor environments, and provides close to the expected theoretical doubling of throughput in practice. View full abstract»

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      Point to Multi‐point, In‐band mmWave Backhaul for 5G Networks

      Copyright Year: 2017

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      Cost‐effective and scalable wireless backhaul solutions are essential for realizing the 5G vision of providing “Gbit/s anywhere”. Not only is wireless backhaul essential to support network densification based on small‐cell deployments, but also for supporting very‐low‐latency inter‐BS communication to deal with inter‐cell interference. Multiplexing backhaul and access on the same frequency band (in‐band wireless backhaul) has obvious cost benefits from hardware and frequency reuse perspective, but poses significant technology challenges. We consider an in‐band solution to meet the backhaul and inter‐BS coordination challenges that accompany network densification. Here, we present an analysis to persuade the readers of the feasibility of in‐band wireless backhaul, discuss realistic deployment and system assumptions and present a scheduling scheme for inter‐BS communications that can be used as a baseline and further improved upon. We show that an in‐band wireless backhaul for data backhauling and inter‐BS coordination is feasible without significantly reducing cell access capacities View full abstract»

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      Application of NFV and SDN to 5G Infrastructure

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      This chapter will present a basic overview of network function virtualization (NFV) and software defined networks (SDN) followed by a design study of the cellular network infrastructure (specifically a virtualized enhanced packet core. This will give the reader a very clear understanding of how NFV and SDN technologies can work to address the demands placed on cellular network infrastructure by 5G. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Copyright Year: 2017

      Wiley Telecom eBook Chapters

      This book brings together a group of visionaries and technical experts from academia to industry to discuss the applications and technologies that will comprise the next set of cellular advancements (5G).  In particular, the authors explore usages for future 5G communications, key metrics for these usages with their target requirements, and network architectures and enabling technologies to meet 5G requirements. The objective is to provide a comprehensive guide on the emerging trends in mobile applications, and the challenges of supporting such applications with 4G technologies.

      View full abstract»