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Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Konstantina S. Nikita
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Bioengineering ;  Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  Signal Processing & Analysis
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Abstract

A must-have compendium on biomedical telemetry for all biomedical professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field

Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, as well as its technical challenges. Written by a diverse group of experts in the field, it is filled with overviews, highly-detailed scientific analyses, and example applications of biomedical telemetry. The book also addresses technologies for biomedical sensing and design of biomedical telemetry devices with special emphasis on powering/integration issues and materials for biomedical telemetry applications.

Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry:

  • Describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, along with the technical challenges
  • Discusses issues of spectrum regulations, standards, and interoperability—while major technical challenges related to advanced materials, miniaturiza ion, and biocompatibility issues are also included
  • Covers body area electromagnetics, inductive coupling, antennas for biomedical telemetry, intra-body communications, non-RF communication links for biomedical telemetry (optical biotelemetry), as well as safety issues, human phantoms, and exposure assessment to high-frequency biotelemetry fields
  • Presents biosensor network topologies and standards; context-aware sensing and multi-sensor fusion; security and privacy issues in biomedical telemetry; and the connection between biomedical telemetry and telemedicine
  • Introduces clinical applications of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in addition to selected examples of wearable, implantable, ingestible devices, stimulator and integrated mobile healthcare system paradigms for monitoring and therapeutic intervention

Covering biomedical telemetry devices, biosensor network topologies and standards, clinical applications, wearable and implantable devices, and the e fects on the mobile healthcare system, this compendium is a must-have for professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students.

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      FrontMatter

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title
      Wiley Series Page
      Title
      Copyright
      Dedication
      Contents
      Preface
      Acknowledgments
      Contributors View full abstract»

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      Supplemental Images

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The color illustrations for Chapters 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21 and 23 are included, as follows:
      Figures 2.13, 2.14, 2.15
      Figures 5.4, 5.5, 5.17, 5.21
      Figures 6.7, 6.9
      Figures 8.7, 8.12, 8.16
      Figures 9.13, 9.16
      Figure 11.15
      Figures 13.8, 13.9, 13.19, 13.20
      Figure 15.2
      Figure 16.3
      Figures 18.1, 18.2, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.11, 18.13, 18.14
      Figures 20.2, 20.3
      Figures 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.16, 21.17, 21.20, 21.21
      Figures 23.15, 23.44 View full abstract»

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      Introduction to Biomedical Telemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Exploitation of information and communication technologies (ICT) assists in a fundamental redesign of the health care processes based on the use and integration of communication technologies at all levels. Demand on radio spectrum for use in wireless biomedical telemetry systems is currently on the increase. This demand is driven by a rapid increase in the use of medical devices, advancements in wireless communication technologies, and the need to improve quality, reliability, and delivery of health care. Advances in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and biological, chemical, electrical, and mechanical sensor technologies have led to a wide range of medical devices, such as pressure sensors, silicon microphones, accelerometers, gyroscopes, optical MEMS and image sensors, microfluidic chips, microdispensers for drug delivery, flowmeters, infrared (IR) temperature sensors, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and strain sensors. A number of commercial medical telemetry devices have already been reported for wearable, implantable, and ingestible applications. View full abstract»

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      Design Considerations of Biomedical Telemetry Devices

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The specifications for an implantable medical device (IMD) are provided by the application but share a common set of constraints in size, power, and functionality. This chapter provides a brief overview of the design of biomedical telemetry devices and in particular IMDs using inductive links. The basic system architecture and inductive link fundamentals are discussed, as well as methods and circuits for power transfer and data communication. Safety issues relating to overheating of body tissue as a result of increase of temperature are also examined. There are several methods of harvesting energy for IMDs such as kinetic, thermoelectric, fuel cells, infrared radiation, low-frequency magnetic fields, and inductive links. Data communication is called the downlink from the transmitter to the implant, and the uplink from the implant to the transmitter. Due to dual data and power transfer, the carrier amplitude is greater than or equal to the supply voltages. View full abstract»

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      Sensing Principles for Biomedical Telemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The biosensors aim to provide accurate and reliable information about the sensed parameter rapidly and in real time. This chapter focuses on the operation principles of the biosensors in terms of both the receptor type and the transduction process. The different recognition and detection principles are reviewed and analyzed, providing insight into the biosensor design challenges. The construction of a biosensor is a complex task where several design principles must be taken into account, including the selection of the biological element that will be used for the detection of the analyte, the chemical nature of the transducer, and the position in the protein to introduce the signal. Modern biomedical applications, which require miniaturized medical devices to be implanted into human bodies, dictate even more stringent requirements, including the size, energy efficiency, and biocompatibility of the device with the individual patient. View full abstract»

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      Sensing Technologies for Biomedical Telemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A critical parameter for all the biomedical telemetry applications is the sensing operation and especially the power feed of the wearable or implantable device. The hardware of these sensors usually comprises a microcontroller, an ultralow-power RF transceiver, antennas, analog signal conditioning circuitry, data converters, and a powering module. This chapter focuses on the sensor interface of various biomedical telemetry applications for both humans and animals. The sensors applied to humans could be divided into two groups: noninvasive sensors and invasive and implantable sensors. Wearable pressure monitors are available for measuring blood pressure, intraocular pressure, and so on. Sensor networks technology has the potential to impact the delivery and study of resuscitative care by allowing vital signs to be automatically collected and fully integrated into the patient care record and used for real-time triage, correlation with hospital records, and long-term observation. View full abstract»

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      Power Issues in Biomedical Telemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      While the energy-harvesting devices do not have the energy density of batteries, their potentially endless supply coupled with smart embedded control of the application-specific operating duty cycle do make them useful for a number of biomedical applications. This chapter presents an advanced human-step-powered energy-harvesting mechanism to power a commercial wireless transmitter that can be used for motion-powered radio frequency identification (RFID)-based patient tracking applications. Near-field magnetic coupling has been in use to noninvasively charge up implanted pacemakers. The chapter describes a new conformal SCMR method, that is, CSCMR that achieves high efficiency and minimizes the volume of wireless powering systems. High efficiency enables CSCMR to deliver a significant amount of power to IMDs without excessive transmitter power. The chapter presents a number of batteryless ways to power biomedical sensors. View full abstract»

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      Numerical and Experimental Techniques for Body Area Electromagnetics

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter discusses the electrical properties of human tissues, as well as numerical and physical modeling of the human body, and corresponding numerical and experimental procedures. Electrical properties of each type of tissue result from the interaction between the incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation and the tissue constituents at the cellular and molecular level and control the propagation, attenuation, reflection, and other behavior of EM fields inside and outside the human body. The computational time is usually very long, and it is generally not easy to simulate realistic conditions and include the effects of the surrounding environment. Finally, in order to ensure human safety, recommendations have been set by professional bodies and government agencies on the maximum allowable specific absorption rate (SAR) levels. However, the health hazards occurring from long-term exposure to these new technologies are far from settled. View full abstract»

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      Inductive Coupling

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Radio frequency identification (RFID) takes advantage of inductive links to not only power up the ultralow-power RFID tags, which cannot have batteries due to their size, weight, and lifetime limitations, but also read the tags, stored information through back telemetry. The main physical principle behind the operation of telemetry coils is Faraday's law, which states that when the total magnetic flux through a conductive loop. Power amplifiers are commonly utilized in wireless power transmission links to drive the primary coil by converting the DC power of an external source. Bidirectional wireless data transmission is essential for IMD and RFID systems to establish a short-range wireless communication between the Tx and Rx parts of the system. Inductive coupling as a viable technique to power up devices and also establish a wireless data communication link is widely used to remove direct electrical contact between the energy source and the target device. View full abstract»

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      Antennas and RF Communication

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Nowadays, RF biomedical telemetry systems are facilitated by the continuously increasing advancements in wireless communications, standards, and components. Wireless medical devices and, thus, antennas integrated into them can be divided into three categories, according to their placement on or inside the patient's body: (1) on-body, (2) implantable, and (3) ingestible antennas. Before the widespread use of on-body, implantable, and ingestible antennas, however, there are a number of technical challenges that need to be addressed, mainly in terms of design and channel modeling. Antennas are essential parts of RF biomedical telemetry systems, with their complexity highly depending on the surrounding tissue environment, and the electronics, communications, and medical requirements. This chapter overviews the challenges for on-body, implantable, and ingestible antennas, along with solutions proposed so far in the literature. View full abstract»

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      Intrabody Communication

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A different approach is becoming popular nowadays, although it was originally proposed by Zimmerman in 1996. It is based on signal transmission through the human body, called intrabody communication (IBC), and has led to the first definition of Body Area Networks (BANs). This chapter shows the main features of some of the most relevant IBC prototypes reported in the literature depending on the type of coupling, operating frequencies, data rate, and consumption. The characterization of the IBC channel has commonly been carried out by means of the evaluation of path loss as a function of frequency, which is commonly accepted establish frequency ranges for optimum IBC performance. Dielectric dispersion constitutes the dependence of the permittivity of a dielectric material on frequency. The impact of the IBC channel on digital communications can be analyzed by using simulation techniques relying on appropriate channel models. View full abstract»

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      Optical Biotelemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter deals with the outline of the basic technologies necessary in order to use optical biotelemetry in practice. It introduces some of the optical biotelemetry systems. Optical biotelemetry is an integrated technology which consists of basic technologies such as optics, communication, biosignal measurement, and information processing. The chapter outlines the basic technologies necessary for optical biotelemetry. A special consideration to optical biotelemetry is necessary in the part from the modulator to the demodulator. The chapter describes the communication technology concerning this part. For optical biotelemetry, it is necessary to understand the propagation of the optical signal in various conditions. The chapter summarizes the optical propagation in transcutaneous telemetry and ambulatory telemetry. There are various multiplexing techniques for optical telemetry. Every technique has problems to be solved in the practical use for optical telemetry. View full abstract»

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      Biosensor Communication Technology and Standards

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A typical use case of a remote patient management system that drives transformation of care outside traditional settings by empowering and motivating patients to actively participate in managing their health and connecting them well with their caregivers is depicted in the chapter. The chapter examines how biosensors can communicate with other components of a remote patient management system. It focuses on some examples of recent standard-based wireless technologies that are suitable for biosensor communication. ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD offers high-level, semantic interoperability between sensors/actuators and aggregators, which are connected to back-end care provider information management systems. Being portable to different transport technologies, the ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD protocols have entered dedicated transport profile standards such that interoperability of the overall communication stack is guaranteed. View full abstract»

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      Context-Aware Sensing and Multisensor Fusion

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Context sensitivity and context-sensitive behavior allow the adaption of the properties of a system according to the user's needs. The realization of context-aware systems in biomedical applications normally requires a combination of body-worn sensors and environmental sensors. Multisensor fusion is the most widely used methodology for context recognition in a variety of applications. Multisensor fusion implies the combination of output variables from different sensors to achieve information with higher quality. In general, there are some basic requirements for sensor systems that are also valid for multisensor systems. They have to fulfill the specifications for accuracy, reliability, security, completeness of the required data, as well as some nonfunctional requirements like weight, dimensions, housing, and price. In telemedical systems, some additional requirements have to be taken into account. View full abstract»

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      Security and Privacy in Biomedical Telemetry: Mobile Health Platform for Secure Information Exchange

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Digital security has always been an important concern in computer systems with the advent of the Internet, sharing of information and services between distant points never being easier before. Threats to security in computer systems can be classified into four broad categories: interception, interruption, modification, and fabrication. This chapter presents a prototype wearable platform based on commercially available Bluetooth-enabled wearable sensors and a BlackBerry Smartphone. It describes how recorded physiological data can be analyzed continuously through appropriate methods based on DWT in order to detect signal portions of the ECG and PPG corrupted by noise and to denoise the recorded signals. The chapter also describes the secure way of protecting health information during exchange with a remote center. View full abstract»

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      Connection between Biomedical Telemetry and Telemedicine

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Using biomedical telemetry, ubiquitous computing, social user interfaces, and wireless communication technologies, intelligent e-health spaces can be created, accelerating the extensive deployment of sensor technology in tomorrow's telemedicine services. Medical instruments and devices are distinguished into three different categories: general control devices, special control devices, general and special control devices. This chapter discusses issues regarding computational medicine, biomedical telemetry, and telemedicine to describe the way smart networking environments can deliver seamless, personalized, and nonobtrusive health care services. It presents a number of key technologies on telecommunication and body area networks and technologies for device connectivity and raised issues on the use of the communication resources of miniaturized smart wireless medical devices and sensors concerning interference management. Lastly the chapter examines state-of-the-art biomedical telemetry devices certified and available today to be used for advanced health care services. View full abstract»

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      Safety Issues in Biomedical Telemetry

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter analyzes all possible risks and safety concerns related to medical devices with biomedical telemetry functionalities. Apart from the usual operational and patient safety issues such as product hazard, device integrity and malfunction, side effects, human factors, and erroneous use, guidelines which need to be applied in order to ensure patient safety against electromagnetic field exposure are being extensively analyzed. It provides future research directions related to patient safety and the understanding of how electromagnetic fields interact with the human tissues. The frequency bands which are of main interest to biomedical telemetry systems are the Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) band and the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands. Regarding the device itself, operational and occupational safety, as well as user issues, human factors and device hazards were discussed in the chapter. View full abstract»

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      Clinical Applications of Body Sensor Networks

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Using the body as the medium, a source of inspiration and energy, body sensor networks (BSN) may facilitate the provision of high-quality, personalized healthcare through continuous monitoring of human physiological parameters in natural, unrestricting environments. This chapter first identifies healthcare challenges. It then shows a variety of case reports, in a range of healthcare settings, where BSN are used in order to meet these challenges. Further, the chapter considers the bigger picture with regard to BSN in healthcare, including the practical challenges of implementation, data interpretation, and the necessary steps needed to translate research devices into everyday healthcare. Pervasive sensing with BSN offers high-quality care that is potentially cost and resource effective. View full abstract»

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      Wearable Health Care System Paradigm

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Wearable physiological measurement systems have many potential applications, in areas such as medicine, sports, and security. This chapter focuses on the motivation for wearable wireless technology in health care and the challenges that emerge. It discusses the methods available for wearable wireless devices, with an emphasis on available wireless communication protocols. The chapter focuses on some examples of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications in health care. For each application, some background is first provided; then, the application is discussed with regard to implications for wireless propagation channels, antennas, and other elements of the communications system. It then looks at wearable wireless health care devices, with the objective of enhancing understanding of some of the design choices and trade-offs. View full abstract»

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      Epidermal Sensor Paradigm: Inner Layer Tissue Monitoring

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The relevant properties of the human body from the very high frequency (VHF) to the X band are studied and dominant propagation modes around the body are discussed in this chapter. Based on these data, approximate human torso models are built for each propagation mode using multiple concentric cylinders emulating the skin, muscle, organ, and the like. After this study, a simpler two-layer model of the human body is proposed for efficient calculations without loss of accuracy and used in the analysis of the epidermal sensor. The radio frequency (RF) properties of human body tissues affect propagation, reflection, attenuation, and other behaviors of electromagnetic fields around the body. Body-centric wireless communications can be divided into three types based on the interaction between the body and the EM field. In each case, different propagation modes are dominant. View full abstract»

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      Implantable Health Care System Paradigm

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter describes the implanted antennas to be applied to medical situations. One is the PIFA loaded onto a cardiac pacemaker for use in the 400MHz Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) band; another one is the helical dipole antenna for the industrial scientific medical (ISM) band. It evaluates the implanted antenna models were numerically analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the antenna characteristics. The chapter analyzes the antenna characteristics of an antenna implanted in a multilayer medium model. Moreover, implanted antennas were buried into high-resolution numerical human models and the effectiveness of these antennas and the validity of the multilayered structure model were investigated by numerical analysis. As a result, it is possible to use these implantable antennas for health care wireless communication systems. View full abstract»

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      Ingestible Health Care System Paradigm for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter offers a survey of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) and endoscopic imaging by evaluating some representative methodologies as well as that WCE technology is also used in colonoscopy. The detection of various organs inside the digestive tract is an important tool for the physician. The chapter presents challenges related to the WCE approaches. In diagnostic endoscopy, based on a distributed perception of local changes, the medical expert interprets the physical surface properties of the tissue, such as the roughness or the smoothness, the regularity, and the shape, to detect abnormalities. According to Fireman and Kopelman (2010): Researchers have proposed the idea that endoscopists will be able to control and steer the Capsule Endoscopy (CE), as they are able to do in standard endoscopy. The chapter also proposes the design of a WCE robotic capsule for diagnostic/therapeutic endoscopy. View full abstract»

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      Stimulator Paradigm: Artificial Retina

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Implanted telemetry devices used for medical implants are affected by their surrounding environment since tissues are frequency-dependent lossy dielectric materials. This chapter focuses on the considerations and methodologies for the design of high-performance and small-size antennas appropriate for intraocular implants. The multicoil approach for inductive coupled telemetry offers high power transfer efficiency for biomedical telemetry. Having multiple control parameters to tune efficiency, voltage gain, and bandwidth, multicoil telemetry systems are in general more flexible than dual-coil systems. The artificial retina is undergoing clinical medical trials in several countries, and it can be available to patients worldwide. The implementation of flexible small antennas using liquid metals holds the promise of better fitting implantable conformal devices, which is important in the proximity of delicate biological structures such as the eye's retina and smaller incisions for implant surgery. View full abstract»

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      Health-Integrated System Paradigm: Diabetes Management

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, affecting millions of people in Europe and throughout the world. People suffering from chronic diseases like diabetes are ideal candidates for telemonitoring. In the last decade, technological progress in telemedicine has had a positive impact on health care management. It is now possible to provide telemetric services to a large number of patients using relatively simple telemetric applications. This chapter presents METABO system, focusing particularly on the context of its implementation, the user requirements, and problems faced and solved during the development process. The METABO system has been contrasted to the state of the art in telemedical diabetes management in order to underline its innovativeness. The main innovation is the ability to analyze and interpret the context-sensitive fusion of information from both body and environmental monitoring noninvasive devices and depict a complete framework of patient's status, enabling behavior prediction and consequent feedback generation. View full abstract»

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      Advanced Material-Based Sensing Structures

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter presents research work the goal of which is to tackle all the subtle but essential problems that hinder the performance or even the realization of the vision of automatic and remote human vital signal extraction. In particular, the following are presented: (i) different designs of electromagnetic band gap structures for human-body-wearable antennas that help eliminate the effects of the lossy body, which are appropriate for any typical antenna, (ii) an advanced liquid ionic antenna that can be mounted on the human wrist based on the earlier finding that dielectric filled tubes become resonant at specific frequencies, (iii) inkjet-printed substrate-integrated waveguide prototypes, (iv) carbon-nanotube-based and graphene-based passive and very low-profile sensing structures for ammonia and other hazardous gas detection for medical diagnosis, and (v) wireless integrated modules including two ZigBee-based low-power. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

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      IEEE Press Series in Biomedical Engineering

      Konstantina S. Nikita
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

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