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Power System Monitoring and Control

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Hassan Bevrani; Masayuki Watanabe; Yasunori Mitani
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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Abstract

Power System Monitoring and Control (PSMC) is becoming increasingly significant in the design, planning, and operation of modern electric power systems. In response to the existing challenge of integrating advanced metering, computation, communication, and control into appropriate levels of PSMC, Power System Monitoring and Control presents a comprehensive overview of the basic principles and key technologies for the monitoring, protection, and control of contemporary wide-area power systems. A variety of topical issues are addressed, including renewable energy sources, smart grids, wide-area stabilizing, coordinated voltage regulation, and angle oscillation damping—as well as the advantages of phasor measurement units (PMUs) and global positioning systems (GPS) time signal. End-of-chapter problems and solutions, along with case studies, add depth and clarity to all topics. Timely and important, Power System Monitoring and Control is an invaluable resource for add essing the myriad of critical technical engineering considerations in modern electric power system design and operation.

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      Front Matter

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Dedication
      Contents
      Preface
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      An Introduction on Power System Monitoring

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      This chapter introduces power system monitoring and control, especially with wide-area phasor measurement applying phasor measurement units (PMUs). Some global applications of the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) and the information and communication technology (ICT) architecture used in the phasor measurement system are outlined in the chapter. To monitor the power system, many measuring instruments and apparatuses are installed. The phase angle is known as an important quantity that should be monitored for state estimation. If the phase angle can be measured, more flexible and precise monitoring could be expected. It should be a very important aspect to collect the data measured by each PMU for system monitoring, state estimation, protection, and control. The measured data could be locally saved and then collected for postanalysis, or sent to a remote location in real time for system protection or real-time control. The chapter discusses the ICT architecture used in phasor measurement systems. View full abstract»

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      Oscillation Dynamics Analysis Based on Phasor Measurements

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      This chapter describes the oscillatory dynamics in the wide-area power system by using acquired monitoring data with phasor measurement units (PMUs). Particularly, interarea low-frequency oscillations in Japan and Southeast Asia power systems are investigated by adopting the band-pass filtering based on the fast Fourier transform technique. Since both systems have the longitudinal configuration, the low-frequency mode oscillates in the opposite phase between both ends of the power network. The oscillatory dynamics can be captured successfully by the wide-area phasor measurements. The chapter presents a method to identify the dominant mode by using measured phasor fluctuations via the wide-area monitoring system (WAMS) in the normal operating condition. Dynamic characteristics of power system oscillations can be investigated based on the measured PMU data. The characteristics of such dominant modes should be analyzed to maintain power system stability and reliability. View full abstract»

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      Small-Signal Stability Assessment

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      Power system stability can be affected by many factors, such as the growth of demand, the use of more large-capacity generators installed at remote locations, longer transmission lines, and the heavier power flow on tie-lines. The techniques of monitoring and estimation of power system stability are key issues to prevent power outages. This chapter describes the small-signal stability assessment with phasor measurements. Particularly, the stability of the interarea low-frequency oscillation mode is investigated by adopting the method to identify the oscillation dynamics with a simple oscillation model. The filtering approach improves the accuracy of the estimated eigenvalues. The stability can be evaluated successfully by the filtering approach. The chapter compares two filtering methods namely, discrete wavelet transformation (DWT)-based filtering and fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based filtering by focusing on the accuracy of the mode identification. It also discusses stability assessment based on phasor measurements and based on frequency monitoring. View full abstract»

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      Graphical Tools for Stability and Security Assessment

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      Power system stability and security assessment has been considered as an important control issue for secure system operation over many years. In this chapter, for the purpose of power system stability/security analysis and control synthesis, some graphical tools are introduced, that is, angle-voltage deviation, voltage-frequency deviation, frequency-angle deviation, and electromechanical wave propagation graphs. It explains the necessity of using the descriptive and graphical tools rather than pure analytical and mathematical approaches in wide-area power system stability and security issues. The improved situational awareness provided by phasor measurement units (PMUs) and wide-area monitoring systems (WAMSs) opens further improvements of graphical analysis, identification, and control tuning methods, providing robustness against unforeseen disturbances. The main purpose of these tools is easy monitoring to prevent instability and maintain an interconnected operation of the power system. View full abstract»

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      Power System Control: Fundamentals and New Perspectives

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      This chapter provides an introduction on the general aspects of power system stability and control. Power system controls attempt to return the system from an off-normal operating state to a normal operating state. Fundamental concepts and definitions of angle, voltage and frequency stability, and existing controls are emphasized in the chapter. Angles of nodal voltages, nodal voltage magnitudes, and network frequency are three important quantities for power system operation and control. The chapter discusses angle and voltage stability, which can be divided into small- and large-disturbance stability. The timescales and characteristics of various power system controls are described in the chapter. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) together with security control, automatic generation control (AGC), and load management are the major units in the application layer of a modern (EMS). The chapter also presents some challenges and new research directions. View full abstract»

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      Wide-Area Measurement-Based Power System Control Design

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      This chapter describes a method for tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) based on wide-area phasor measurements. Some numerical analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by using phasor dynamical data obtained by a power system simulation package. Many approaches for the measurement-based controller design have been investigated in the literatures. The chapter presents the concept of damping controller design based on the wide-area phasor measurements. It considers a coupled vibration model to represent the interaction of two modes. These modes are assumed to oscillate with keeping the dynamics of power swing equations. The low-order system model, which holds the characteristics of the interarea oscillation mode and the control effect, is identified by monitoring data from wide-area phasor measurements. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated through the power system simulation. The results show that an appropriate controller can be designed by using the identified low-order model. View full abstract»

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      Coordinated Dynamic Stability and Voltage Regulation

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      This chapter presents three tuning mechanisms to enhance the stability and voltage regulation of existing real power systems without removing conventional automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) units. The proposed coordination methodologies use measurable signals for robust tuning of control proportional gains; therefore, they have considerable promise for implementation, especially in a large-scale multimachine system. In fact, the proposed control strategies attempt to make a bridge between the simplicity of control structure and robustness of stability and performance to satisfy simultaneous AVR and PSS objectives. The chapter addresses a tuning algorithm based on the described angle-voltage graph. In this, the controller uses the wide-area measurements data. The chapter presents the performance of intelligent fuzzy-based coordinated control for the AVR and PSS to prevent losing synchronism after a major sudden fault and to achieve appropriate postfault voltage level in multimachine power systems. View full abstract»

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      Wide-Area Measurement-Based Emergency Control

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      To prevent power system blackout following a severe contingency, an emergency control action may be needed. The underfrequency and undervoltage load shedding (UFLS/UVLS) schemes are usually in use in real-world power systems without coordination. This chapter emphasizes the necessity of using both voltage and frequency data, specifically in the presence of high wind power penetration, to develop an effective LS scheme. After a background on the LS problem, the chapter talks about an LS scheme using both voltage and frequency information with the described graphical tool. Then, the application of electromechanical wave propagation for the emergency control issue in a wide-area power system is emphasized. The chapter shows that the voltage and frequency responses may behave in opposite directions following many contingencies. View full abstract»

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      Microgrid Control: Concepts and Classification

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      The microgrids (MGs) as basic elements of future smart grids have an important role to increase the grid efficiency, reliability, and to satisfy the environmental issues. The MG is an interconnection of domestic distributed loads and low-voltage (LV) distributed energy sources, such as microturbines, wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), and storage devices. In this chapter, in addition to the main MG concepts, a comprehensive review on various MG control loops and relevant standards are given with discussion on the challenges of MG controls. The required control loops in the MGs are classified into primary control, secondary control, global control, and central/emergency control classes. Local or internal controls appear in different forms depending on the type of microsources that can be addressed based on their technologies such as induction generators, synchronous generators, and power electronic inverters/converters. View full abstract»

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      Microgrid Control: Synthesis Examples

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      This chapter addresses several synthesis methodology examples for controller design in a microgrid (MG). These examples cover all control levels, that is, primary, secondary, global, and emergency controls. The applied algorithms and control techniques are mostly based on robust, intelligent, and optimal/adaptive strategies. The chapter addresses a robust voltage control synthesis technique based on Kharitonov's theorem for an isolated MG. In this, a simple PI structure is used for the voltage controller; however, the PI parameters are tuned by Kharitonov's theorem and the D-stability concept. Energy consumption scheduling and power dispatching can be considered as important global control issues in distribution networks with interconnected MGs. The chapter suggests an effective load shedding (LS) scheme based on both voltage and frequency records as the last action to prevent the system blackout. View full abstract»

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      Appendix A: New York/New England 16-Machine 68-Bus System Case Study

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      Appendix B: Nine-Bus Power System Case Study

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      Appendix C: Four-Order Dynamical Power System Model and Parameters of the Four-Machine Infinite-Bus System

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      Index

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