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Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Ceraolo, M.; Poli, D.
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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      Front Matter

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.fmatter
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Dedication
      Contents
      Preface
      About the Authors View full abstract»

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      Preliminary Material

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.part1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch01
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The scope of electric power engineering comprises everything needed to manage electric energy, from its generation to its final utilization. Between generation and final utilization, electric energy can be transformed several times, and transferred for distances of up to hundreds or thousands of kilometres, by means of power lines. This introductory chapter illustrates the main functions of a power system along with the different energy forms involved. The energy converters that are of interest to electric power engineering can be divided into two categories: electromechanical-energy conversion and electric-to-electric energy conversion. This book focuses on showing (a) how a physical system can be modelled using circuits and (b) how circuits can be analysed, and is divided into four parts: Part I: Preliminary Material, Part II: Electric circuit Concept and Analysis, Part III: Electric Machines and Power Converters, and Part IV: Power Systems Basics. View full abstract»

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      The Fundamental Laws of Electromagnetism

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch02
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In this chapter, the author offers a concise presentation of all the basic laws of electromagnetism??-??that is, the laws of Gauss, Amp??re (with Maxwell's added displacement current), and Faraday, as well as Gauss's law for magnetism and the definitions of E and B by means of induced forces. This way the authors provide some basic knowledge to those who have not previously encountered them. Forces, currents, potentials, and fields used in the chapter can all be time-varying. The chapter starts with the definitions of electric and magnetic fields, which link the worlds of mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena. The chapter concludes with the short biography of Faraday, Gauss, Maxwell, Amp??re and Lorentz. View full abstract»

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      Electric Circuit Concept and Analysis

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.part2
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Circuits as Modelling Tools

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch03
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter makes a clear distinction between physical systems and models, and begins by differentiating circuital systems and circuits. It allows a clear distinction between electromagnetism laws (Maxwell's equations written in more or less complicated forms) and Kirchhoff's laws, which are assumed to be valid, by definition, for all circuits. In this book, the physical systems that circuits are intended to model, whenever precision is necessary, are called circuital systems. The chapter provides a summary of all the major definitions related to circuits used in the book. Some of the terms that are defined are: branch-based circuit, circuit element, node and electric network. The chapter provides information on how to write linearly independent Kirchhoff equations and constitutive equations; in addition, it examines whether or not the resulting equations are sufficient to determine all currents and voltages. View full abstract»

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      Techniques for Solving DC Circuits

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch04
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In this chapter, the authors develop their analysis of circuits while working exclusively with constant quantities (voltages, currents, powers, etc.), so as to enable the reader to solve these kinds of circuit. Circuits that operate with constant quantities are by tradition called direct current (DC) circuits. While computer programmes solve circuits simply by just assembling Kirchhoff and constitutive equations in a mechanical way, electrical engineers use specialised solving techniques for DC circuits. The easiest and more common of these are discussed in the following sections. In particular: Basic usage of combined Kirchhoff-constitutive equations (KCE), Nodal analysis, and Mesh analysis. If the constitutive equations are known, all voltages and currents can be obtained by integrating the latter into Kirchhoff's equations and reducing the set of equations even more by making use of the nodal analysis technique. View full abstract»

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      Techniques for Solving AC Circuits

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch05
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter is mainly devoted to the analysis of alternating current (AC) circuits, in which all the quantities (mainly currents, voltages, powers) vary as sinusoids over time. In addition, it deals with two kinds of circuits in which the quantities do not vary as sinusoids, namely the RL circuit (containing a resistor and an inductor) and the RC circuit (containing a resistor and a capacitor). The chapter introduces circuit branches, whose idealized behaviour can be mathematically described by other constitutive equations. Since these are differential equations, it shows that the corresponding components have some energy storage capability and are therefore called globally energy storage elements. The phasors circuit was introduced, showing that Kirchhoff's equations can be written directly in terms of phasors. View full abstract»

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      Three-Phase Circuits

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch06
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter shows that the genesis of three-phase lines and systems and provides information on how to make computations with these systems in the particularly important (and easy) case of balanced three-phase systems. Important advantage of three-phase systems is the fact that, differently from single-phase transmission, the instantaneous power delivered by three-phase generators and transferred to three-phase loads is constant. The three load impedances discussed were connected between the line wires, forming a triangle. The chapter describes the single-phase equivalent of the three-phase circuit and power in three-phase systems. It discusses the single-phase feeding from three-phase systems. Finally, the chapter ends with short biography of Tesla. View full abstract»

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      Electric Machines and Static Converters

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.part3
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Magnetic Circuits and Transformers

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch07
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains basic concepts that can be used for all rotating machines and for power transformers. It presents a more complete analysis and more detailed circuit models of real-life transformers. When the transformer operates in sinusoidal steady state, the corresponding phasor circuit can be used to analyse it. Three-phase transformers can have different construction modes. The chapter briefly presents only the transformers created as a three-phase bank of single-phase transformers. Magnetic hysteresis is important also from an energy point of view: it can be demonstrated that hysteresis phenomenon implies loss of energy in the magnetic circuit of the transformer, which reduces efficiency and heats the iron. View full abstract»

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      Fundamentals of Electronic Power Conversion

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch08
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter aims to give sufficient knowledge of how electric power is converted using electronic power converters, in order to facilitate the study of electric drives. Furthermore, it presents how inverters operate to allow power to be fed into grids from low power power plants such as small photovoltaic generators. A concise description of the behaviour of the devices, as well as an introduction to approximations in such a way that they can be analysed using the linear circuit concepts. Rectifiers are devices that convert AC power into DC without affecting (if we disregard inner power losses) the transferred power. This concept is illustrated, showing single-phase and three-phase rectifiers. View full abstract»

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      Principles of Electromechanical Conversion

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch09
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter provides a basic understanding of rotating machines. It demonstrates the derivation of Faraday's law for rotating coils. One of the greatest uses of final energy from electricity is in mechanical form, whenever electricity feeds electric motors. In the chapter, electromechanical conversion is shown to be obtained using the principle of the translating bar, in which there is explicit interaction between the moving charge in the translating bar, and an external magnetic field produced by other means. It is, however, also possible to produce or absorb mechanical power using current that interacts with the field it produces. These cases are normally studied through use of magnetic circuit reluctance; in the chapter, the corresponding conversion is called reluctance-based electromechanical conversion. View full abstract»

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      DC Machines and Drives and Universal Motors

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch10
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      DC machines are increasingly substituted by AC machines, since their competitiveness in variable speed drives is greatly reduced by the lower cost of inverters. This chapter talks about the different type of DC machine. It focuses on how the DC machine operates as a motor. other important ways to create the flux density B in the machine are introduced briefly, with reference to its operation as a motor. The fundamental equations were demonstrated in both generator and motor operation. The chapter focuses on the universal motors and the DC electric drives. View full abstract»

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      Synchronous Machines and Drives

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch11
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The synchronous machine is a three-phase machine, able to exchange power with a three-phase network. Although it can also operate as a motor (absorbing electric energy) in the majority of applications, it is used as a generator (delivering electric energy). The vast majority of power stations generate electricity in three-phase form, using synchronous machines. Synchronous machines used in power stations, therefore, not only generate active power for the loads, but also contribute to supplying the loads with the needed reactive power. In a synchronous machine rotor, therefore, the insertion of permanent magnets (PMs) can have the same effect as a DC-fed coil with a fixed current flowing in it. In recent years, electronic devices have appeared that are able to convert constant frequency sources into variable frequency, thus allowing modification of voltage and frequency characteristics of a three-phase source. View full abstract»

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      Induction Machines and Drives

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch12
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter first introduces the induction machine, starting with a physical analysis. This is followed by an explanation of the commonly used single-phase steady-state model of induction machines. A very simple and effective mathematical model is presented that allows the electrical and mechanical quantities of the machine to be quantitatively evaluated at the various speeds. As regards induction-motor drives, the chapter presents a simulation using a more detailed model. A method for determining the parameters of the equivalent circuit of an induction machine consists of two tests: the no-load test and the blocked-rotor test; these tests are discussed in the chapter. The chapter shows how to operate the inverter in order to obtain a good performance in variable-speed operation from the machine. Finally, the chapter examines single-phase induction motors to know what the most common household AC machines look like inside and to determine how they work. View full abstract»

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      Power Systems Basics

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.part4
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Low-Voltage Electrical Installations

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch13
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter presents an understanding of how low-voltage electrical installations are structured and how to determine the required sizes of cables and circuit breakers. It develops a theory and supply numerical tables to facilitate the explanation of simple examples. In electrical installation, electricity is generally taken from the public distribution network. A good electrical installation also needs to have all its parts operating together, in order to perform the function they are designed for??-??that is, supplying its loads safely and reliably. The chapter presents a description of the individual objects, looks at some details of the function of overcurrent protection, which means that looks simultaneously at electricity source, distribution lines, and protection devices. View full abstract»

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      Electric Shock and Protective Measures

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch14
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Current flowing in the body of a human being may have several types of effect, some of them harmful or even deadly. The greater the current or the exposition time, the more serious the effects. DC currents are also dangerous, but in general they are significantly less dangerous than AC currents, when equal current (comparing DC current with rms AC) and exposition time are considered. Protection against electric shock is ensured differently for two types of risks: direct contact and indirect contact. Basic protection is mainly achieved by surrounding the live parts with insulating material. In civil environments, except for very low voltage appliances, everything live is surrounded by insulating materials. It was stated that the most common and effective device for automatic disconnection of the electric supply caused by a fault is the so-called residual current device (RCD). View full abstract»

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      Large Power Systems: Structure and Operation

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.ch15
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter aims to provide readers with a basic idea of large power systems so they have sufficient background when dealing with the LV installation of an electric machine or drive. LV installations, both single-phase and three-phase, are usually just the extreme terminal parts of a much larger system. The chapter provides some basic characteristics of large power system structures and operations. It shows the evolution from a simple subtransmission grid to a power system comprising downstream distribution networks. It discusses transmission and interconnection grids, and summarizes the typical structure of a traditional power system. Prior to 1990s, vertically integrated utilities performed all the generation and transmission activities; but now vertically integrated utilities have been progressively unbundled. The chapter also discusses smart grids and renewable energy sources. View full abstract»

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      Appendix: Transmission Line Modelling and Port-Based Circuits

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.app1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

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      Selected References

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.refs
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Answers to the Proposed Exercises

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.answ1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Ceraolo, M. ; Poli, D.
      Fundamentals of Electric Power Engineering:From Electromagnetics to Power Systems

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118922583.index
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»




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