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Design and Fabrication of Self-Powered Micro-Harvesters:Rotating and Vibrated Micro-Power Systems

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2013
Author(s): C. T. Pan; Y. M. Hwang; Liwei Lin; Ying-Chung Chen
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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      Frontmatter

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Table of Contents
      About the Authors
      Preface
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Introduction

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      n applications, microsystems have to be self-powered; therefore, efficient energy scavenging is crucial. The self-powered microsystems are designed to avoid the replacement of energy cells and miniature sensing devices. Vibration-based energy harvesting is a process of capturing ambient kinetic energy and converting it into usable electricity. The growing demand of cell phone devices such as miniature wireless sensor networks, the recent advent of the extremely low power controlled circuit and MEMS devices make such renewable power sources very attractive. In addition, the energy harvesting process is practicable with environmental vibrations such as running machines and human body movement. However, the wide range of environmental energy keeps harvester low efficiency when deployed in a stochastic surrounding vibration. View full abstract»

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      Design and Fabrication of Flexible Piezoelectric Generators Based on ZnO Thin Films

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The piezoelectric transducer for vibration-energy harvesting is constructed of a piezoelectric layer, bottom electrode and a top electrode. In order to obtain an appropriate transducer for the low-frequency operating; environmentally-friendly and long-term, the flexible substrate, the piezoelectric layer, and the additional mass-loading have been investigated thoroughly. Firstly, flexible piezoelectric harvesters based on ZnO (Zinc Oxide) thin films for self-powering and broad bandwidth applications. The design and simulation of a piezoelectric cantilever plate was described by using commercial software ANSYS FEA (finite element analysis) to determine the optimum thickness of PET substrate, internal stress distribution, operation frequency and electric potential. A modified design of a flexible piezoelectric energy-harvesting system with a serial bimorph of ZnO piezoelectric thin film was presented to enhance significantly higher power generation. This high-output system was examined at 15 Hz. The maximum DC (direct current) voltage output voltage with loading was 3.18 V, and the maximum DC power remained at 2.89 ??W/cm2. Secondly, this investigation fabricates double-sided piezoelectric transducers for harvesting vibration-power. The double-sided piezoelectric transducer is constructed by depositing piezoelectric thin films. The Ti (titanium) and Pt (platinum) layers were deposited using a dual-gun DC sputtering system between the piezoelectric thin film and the back side of the SUS304 substrate. The maximum open circuit voltage of the double-sided ZnO power transducer is approximately 18 V. After rectification and filtering through a 33 nF capacitor, a specific power output of 1.3 ??W/cm2 is obtained from the double-sided ZnO transducer with a load resistance of 6 M View full abstract»

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      Design and Fabrication of Vibration-Induced Electromagnetic Microgenerators

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      This work presents design and fabrication technologies on vibration-induced electromagnetic micro-generators using LTCC (Low temperature co-fire ceramic) processes. LTCC fabrication with some special advantages has simplistically processes and multilayer stack procedure, resulting in a micro-inducer can consist of the multilayer induction micro-coils and a helical ceramic micro-spring. Multilayer micro-coil structures can enhance the power output of generators. There are two types of microgenerator structures: the magnetic core-type generator (MCTG) and sided magnet-type generator (SMTG). In an MCTG, the magnetic field is generated by the interaction of a magnetic core element and a magnet in the center hole, whereas in an SMTG the magnetic field is generated by the microinduction coil on the sides of the magnetic element. The results confirmed that this fabrication procedure of the inducer using LTCC is valid. The fired microspring has a 100-??m beam width, a 100-??m beam interspace, a 1.7-mm innermost loop radius, and 5.5 unequal radius loops. In addition, the fired microcoil has a cross-sectional area of 90-??m (line-width) ? 10-??m (line-thickness). The entire volume of the meso-generator is 10 mm ? 10 mm ? 7.18 mm (approximately 718 mm3). The measurements were performed at a natural frequency of 69 Hz with maximal amplitude of 0.03 mm. The safe design of the double supporting beam was confirmed: the supporting beam has a maximal bending stress of 32 MPa and a lifetime of 1.95 ? 108 cycles when the vibration amplitude is at its maximum. View full abstract»

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      Design and Fabrication of Rotary Electromagnetic Microgenerator

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      This study focuses on the design, fabrication, test and application of in-plane rotary electromagnetic micro-generator to obtain a high power output. The micro-generator comprises multilayer planar low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) Ag micro-coil and multipole hard magnet of Nd/Fe/B. Finite element simulations have been carried out to observe electromagnetic information. The study also establishes analytical solutions for the micro-generator to predict the induced voltage. The experimental results show that the micro-generator with sector-shaped micro-coil has the highest power output of 1.89 mW, and the effective value of the induced voltage of 205.7 mV at 13,325 rpm is achieved. In application, this study designed and fabricated a planar rotary electromagnetic energy harvester with a low rotary speed for use in bicycle dynamos. LTCC technology was applied to fabricate Ag planar multilayer coils with 20 layers. A 28-pole magnet Nd/Fe/B with an outer diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 2 mm was also sintered and magnetized. This harvester system was approximately 50??50??3 mm3 in volume. The experimentally induced voltages for 20-layer coils were 1.539 V at the rotary speeds of 300 rpm. The power output was 0.788 mW with an external resistance load of 740 O, and the efficiency was 26.62%. This harvester is capable of powering a minimum of 200 light emitted diodes (LEDs) (forward voltage (VF) <2.2 V and 20 mA) using a rotary speed of 250 rpm, and can be used for bicycle dynamo lighting. View full abstract»

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      Design and Fabrication of Electrospun PVDF Piezo-Energy Harvesters

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      Nanogenerators capable of converting energy from mechanical sources to electricity with high effective efficiency using low-cost, nonsemiconducting, organic nanomaterials are attractive for many applications, including energy harvesters. In this work, near-field electrospinning is used to direct-write poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical poling characteristics to produce piezoelectric properties. Under mechanical stretching, nanogenerators have shown repeatable and consistent electrical outputs with energy conversion efficiency an order of magnitude higher than those made of PVDF thin films. The early onset of the nonlinear domain wall motions behavior has been identified as one mechanism responsible for the apparent high piezoelectricity in nanofibers, rendering them potentially advantageous for sensing and actuation applications. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Copyright Year: 2013

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