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Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2014
Author(s): Grbovic, P.
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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Abstract

Ultra-capacitors, used as short-term energy storage devices, are growing in popularity especially in the transportation and renewable energy sectors. This text provides an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of ultra-capacitor theory, modeling, and module design from an application perspective, focusing on the practical aspects of power conversion and ultra-capacitor integration with power electronics systems.Key features: 
clearly explains the theoretical and practical aspects of ultra-capacitor, analysis, modeling, and design 
describes different power conversion applications such as variable speed drives, renewable energy systems, traction, power quality, diesel electric hybrid applications 
provides detailed guidelines for the design and selection of ultra-capacitor modules and interface dc–dc converters 
includes exercises and design examplesThis is an essential reference for power electronics engineers and professionals wanting to expand their knowledge of advanced ultra-capacitor energy storage devices and their application in power conversion. It is also a valuable resource for industrial design engineers as well as academics and advanced students in power electronics who want to develop their understanding about this highly topical subject.

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      Front Matter

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.fmatter
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Table of Contents
      Preface View full abstract»

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      Energy Storage Technologies and Devices

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.ch1
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      An energy storage device is a multi-physic device with ability to store energy in different forms. Energy in electrical systems, so-called electrical energy, can be stored directly or indirectly, depending on the means of the storage medium. Devices that store the electrical energy without conversion from electrical to another form of energy are called direct electrical energy storage devices. Two major energy storage devices are ultra-capacitor energy storage (UCES) and super-conducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Devices that convert and store the electrical energy in another form of energy are called indirect electrical energy storage devices. Electro-mechanical storage devices are flywheels, compressed air energy storage (CAES) and hydro pumped energy storage (HPES). Electrochemical energy storage devices are electrochemical batteries and fuel cells. Above mentioned energy storage technologies and devices are briefly described in this chapter. Different fields of application are also discussed. View full abstract»

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      Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage Devices

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.ch2
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The ultra-capacitor as an emerging energy storage device dedicated to power conversion applications. The ultra-capacitor structure, operation principle and a macro (electrical) model are discussed intensively. Charging and discharging techniques and methods such as constant voltage/resistance, constant current and constant power are addressed and analysed. The ultra-capacitor charging and discharging process is not a loss-free process. The charging/discharging losses equations are derived and discussed. Thermal models of the ultra-capacitor are also addressed. With the theoretical analysis, practical examples, and exercises presented, this chapter gives an overview of how an ultra-capacitor operates as energy storage device and what are the essential properties to be consider in design of a power conversion system. The chapter is concluded with an overview of state of the arte ultra-capacitor technologies as well as ultra-capacitor under short and long term development. View full abstract»

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      Power Conversion and Energy Storage Applications

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.ch3
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The fundamentals of power conversion, static power converters and power conversion applications are presented and discussed in this chapter. The need for integration of a short term energy storage device into a power conversion system is identified and selection of an appropriate energy storage device discussed. Ultra-capacitors and electrochemical batteries, as two major rivals are compared and the selection guide-line is given. Power conversion applications such as controlled electric drives, renewable sources (Wind, PV and Marine current generator), power generation and transmission devices (STATCOM), home appliances, mobile diesel electric gen-sets, UPS, earth moving machines and traction drives are applications that require integration of a short term energy storage into the system. These applications and the energy storage integration techniques are discussed intensively case by case. Benefits and advantages of having integrated energy storage are also discussed. View full abstract»

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      Ultra-Capacitor Module Selection and Design

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.ch4
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The ultra-capacitor module is the core of a short-term energy storage system. Performances of the storage system, such as efficiency, life span, reliability, size, and cost strongly depend on the way the ultra-capacitor module is selected and designed. In this chapter, the ultra-capacitor module design is extensively discussed. Selection of the three main parameters (voltage levels and rating, capacitance and losses (efficiency)), that are crucial for the ultra-capacitor module design is discussed in details. The design steps are summarized in 5 steps: 1) Selection of the ultra-capacitor cell from the data sheet, 2) Selection of the number of series connected cells, ) Selection of the number of parallel connected cells, 4) The module's thermal design, 5) The string voltage balancing circuit design. Each of the steps is described in details. With the theoretical analysis, practical examples, and exercises presented, this chapter gives a clear overview of how to select and design an ultra-capacitor module for a power conversion application parameters given. The final step in the entire design process is module testing and verification. Different test methods and procedures such as IEC62391-1, IEC62391-2, and EUCAR are described at the end of the chapter. View full abstract»

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      Interface DC-DC Converters

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.ch5
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In this chapter, interface dc-dc converters for ultra-capacitor energy storage applications are discussed. The background of dc-dc power conversion is given and different converter concepts and topologies are briefly compared. Topology selection process and guideline are given. The theoretical background of two-cell interleaved dc-dc converters is given. The operating principle is described in detail. The analysis is then extended to a general N-cell interleaved dc-dc interface converter. The converter's main parameters, such as the output current ripple and the dc bus current ripple, are analyzed and the solution is given as closed form equations. To give practical value to this chapter, the converter design procedure is discussed in great detail. The design and selection of passive components, such as the output filter inductor and coupling transformer (ICT), the dc bus capacitor and output filter capacitor, are described step by step. The selection process of power semiconductors is also addressed step by step. At the end of the chapter, thermal management of power converters is discussed in general. The origin of the conversion losses and the loss mechanisms in power semiconductors, transformers, inductors, and capacitors is fully addressed. With the theoretical analysis, practical examples, and exercises presented, this chapter gives a clear overview of how to select and design an interface dc-dc converter for ultra-capacitor energy storage applications. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Grbovic, P.
      Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems:Analysis, Modeling and Design in Theory and Practice

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118693636.index
      Copyright Year: 2014

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»