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Micro and Nanotechnologies in Engineering Stem Cells and Tissues

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2013
Author(s): Murugan Ramalingam; Esmaiel Jabbari; Seeram Ramakrishna; Ali Khademhosseini
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Bioengineering ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  General Topics for Engineers
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      Front Matter

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Wiley Series Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Contents
      Preface
      Contributors View full abstract»

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      Stem Cells and Nanotechnology in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

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      This introductory chapter of the book Micro and Nanotechnologies in Engineering Stems Cells and Tissues provides an overview of the central concepts in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies. First, it presents a brief overview of stem cells and their role in cell therapy strategies followed by a discussion of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications using stem cells in conjunction with biomaterials and bioactive factors. In particular, it focuses on the shift that has occurred in the field toward using nanoscale approaches that control cellular activities and tissue formation at the subcellular level. View full abstract»

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      Nanofiber Technology for Controlling Stem Cell Functions and Tissue Engineering

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Nanotechnology is an upcoming yet promising technology with respect to the development of well-established products. Nanofibers are potentially recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering (TE). Nanofiber-based scaffolds are being explored as scaffolds for TE applications. Electrospinning has developed into a versatile technique to fabricate polymeric nanofiber matrices, and the ability to incorporate bioactive therapeutic molecules without adversely affecting their structural integrity and biological activity using the mild electrospinning process has generated significant interest in polymeric nanofiber-based drug release patterns by changing the mode of encapsulation as well as by varying the matrix polymer. Scaffold composition and fabrication can be controlled to confirm desired properties and biofunctionalities. Interaction between the stem cells and nanofibers are crucial in a cell-scaffold matrix while using them for different TE applications. This chapter finally talks about the stem cell-nanofiber interactions in regenerative medicine and TE. View full abstract»

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      Micro- and Nanoengineering Approaches to Developing Gradient Biomaterials Suitable for Interface Tissue Engineering

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      This chapter discusses various techniques such as micro- and nanotechnologies, used in the fabrication of gradient biomaterials or scaffolds suitable for engineering tissue interfaces and how the gradient features of the biomaterials influence cellular behaviors such as adhesion, migration, differentiation, and heterotypic interactions during tissue organization. In addition, an overview of various gradient biomaterials and their physical, chemical, and biological classifications is provided. Finally, potential challenges and future directions of the emerging field of interface tissue engineering (ITE) are discussed. View full abstract»

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      Microengineered Polymer- and Ceramic-Based Biomaterial Scaffolds: A Topical Review on Design, Processing, and Biocompatibility Properties

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Porous scaffolds play a critical role in bone regeneration and therefore are widely being developed for various biomedical applications. Porosity and pore size, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, are important morphological characteristics of a biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration. This chapter explores the state-of the-art knowledge on the fabrication of porous scaffolds and their physicomechanical behavior as well as in vitro and in vivo biological response in the context of their bone regeneration capabilities. The availability of a number of scaffold fabrication routes provides an opportunity to develop porous scaffolds of various biocompatible materials with different porosities, pore sizes, and mechanical properties. The chapter discusses mechanical as well as the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility properties. It highlights some of the outstanding issues related to the future scaffold development to mimic the complex architecture of natural bone for better bone tissue regeneration. View full abstract»

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      Synthetic Enroutes to Engineer Electrospun Scaffolds for Stem Cells and Tissue Regeneration

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      Nanotechnology for tissue engineering application focuses on the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in cell patterning, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. This chapter discusses electrospinning process as a novel method for engineering scaffolds for stem cells and tissue regeneration. Scaffolds made of natural proteins and carbohydrate materials have poor mechanical properties, and in most cases, they cannot be applied for tissue engineering. Cross-linking is carried out by many researchers to maintain the structural integrity of the construct. To improve the stability of the natural protein or carbohydrate-based scaffolds and to reduce the biodegradation rate of the scaffolds, cross-linking becomes inevitable. The details of electrospun cross-linked polymeric scaffolds used for tissue regeneration are also provided in the chapter. View full abstract»

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      Integrating Top-Down and Bottom-Up Scaffolding Tissue Engineering Approach for Bone Regeneration

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Tissue engineering (TE) as an interdisciplinary field of research aims at restoring, maintaining, or improving tissue function through applying the principles of biology, medicine, and engineering science. Cells, scaffolds, and growth-stimulating bioactive factors are generally referred to as the three key components of engineered tissues in TE. A common strategy in TE is combining cells, biodegradable scaffolds, and bioactive factors to replicate natural processes of tissue regeneration and development. The interactions among these components are imperative to achieve biologically functional engineered tissue. This chapter reviews the bone TE strategies involved in preparation of scaffolds and briefly discusses the drawbacks and advantages of these strategies. The major challenge of integration of bottom-up techniques with more traditional top-down approaches is to create more complex tissues than are currently achievable using either approach alone by optimizing the advantages of each technique. View full abstract»

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      Characterization of the Adhesive Interactions Between Cells and Biomaterials

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      The interactions between cells and their environment are mediated by adhesion receptors located on the cell surface. This chapter focuses on the adhesion receptors responsible for the interactions that occur within native tissue, current biomaterial fabrication methods that attempt to mimic these interactions for tissue engineering applications, and measurement techniques that investigate cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion strength. View full abstract»

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      Microfluidic Formation of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Modules for Tissue Engineering

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter introduces the reproducible fabrication methods of cell-laden hydrogel modules with a controllable design and the characteristics of the modules. It provides an overview of handling techniques of the modules in microfluidic devices. The chapter talks about applications of the modules for transplantation and bottom-up tissue engineering. Combined with cell assay microfluidic systems and cell-laden hydrogel modules, microtissues with extracellular matrices (ECMs) are useful for analyses of cell functions and cell-cell interactions because microtissues can easily be handled, arrayed, and retrieved in microfluidic systems. Furthermore, the cell-laden hydrogel modules can be used as building units for reconstructing 3D cell structures. Therefore, the cell-laden hydrogel modules produced by microfluidic devices have a great potential to create miniaturized tissues for human implantation and for treatment of diseases. View full abstract»

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      Micro- and Nanospheres for Tissue Engineering

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      The emergence of regenerative medicine has resulted in a novel interdisciplinary field that focuses on repair, replacement, and regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues or organs. As one of the most important strategies in regenerative medicine, the field of tissue engineering (which typically combines biodegradable scaffolds, (stem) cells, and bioactive signals such as growth factors) has created new possibilities to produce implantable tissues ex vivo. This chapter focuses on the most recent advances in research on micro- and nanospheres aiming at improvement of the functionality and clinical efficacy of traditional scaffolds for soft and hard tissue engineering. Depending on their origin, polymeric micro- and nanospheres can be classified as either natural or synthetic polymers, both of which have their specific pros and cons. View full abstract»

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      Micro- and Nanotechnologies to Engineer Bone Regeneration

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      In this chapter, selected published articles pertaining to micro- and nanotechnologies for bone tissue engineering are reviewed with a focus on development of scaffolds. Nanoparticles and nanofibers have shown to improve the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymeric implants. Non-union bone fractures are a major health care concern in the United States. One of the most widely used strategies in bone tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds for temporary structural support. Scaffolds are porous biomaterials and play a central role in tissue engineering approaches by guiding cell proliferation and assisting the exchange of nutrients and waste. Scaffolds made with micro- and nanoparticles and micro- and nanofibers show much promise as they impart the ability to create scaffolds with appropriate mechanical properties and microenvironment. The chapter discusses micro/nanomaterials of hydroxyapatite, a variety of synthetic polymers, and silk, and their potential for use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. View full abstract»

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      Micro- and Nanotechnology for Vascular Tissue Engineering

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      This chapter discusses recent micro- and nanotechnologic approaches to tissue-engineered vascular graft design and biomaterial-driven microvascular formation. Contributions to the field of vascular tissue engineering from micro- and nanotechnology are numerous. Toward the development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, they include surface topography to direct vascular cells, micropatterned cell sheets, and nanofibrous matrices for scaffolds. Additionally, microfluidic systems to control flow and cell location have given us methods to study angiogenesis under tightly regulated conditions. Finally, microfabricated scaffolds and nanofiber gels are designed to enhance vascularization in vivo, bringing tissue engineering one step closer to clinical success. View full abstract»

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      Application of Stem Cells in Ischemic Heart Disease

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      It is evident that the limited capacity of regeneration and proliferation of human cardiomyocytes can prevent neither the scar formation that occurs after myocardial infarction (MI) nor the loss of heart function occurring in patients with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Replacement and regeneration of functional cardiac muscle is an important goal that could be achieved either by stimulation of autologous resident cardiomyocytes or by the transplantation of allogenic cells. Transplanted satellite stem cells (myoblasts) from skeletal muscle can successfully home and engraft within a damaged myocardium, preventing progressive ventricular dilatation and improving cardiac function. It is important to point out that bone marrow contains several stem cell populations with overlapping phenotypes, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), endothelial stem/precursor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPss). This chapter provides a brief comparison of the advantages and limitations of the cell types presently used in cardiac transplantation. View full abstract»

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      Index

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      IEEE Press Series in Biomedical Engineering

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