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Urban Air Pollution Modeling

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2003
Author(s): Michel M. Benarie
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Geoscience
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Abstract

This book brings together the methods, models and formulae used for estimating air pollution concentrations in urban areas.From the Foreword The visible effects of pollution in most cities in the developed countries have been reduced dramatically in the past thirty years. This has been achieved to a large extent by the replacement of most of the low-level sources, which burnt raw coal, by more modern appliances using gas, electricity or low-sulphur oil. The killer smog of 1952 could not be repeated unless there were to be a massive return to old-fashioned heating methods, due, for example, to excessive environmental constraints being applied to the more modern energy sources. It is important, therefore, to judge the impact of a new source in terms of its effect on the pattern of existing sources. One should also consider the environmental consequences of rejecting the new installation and examine the alternatives--that its product may either be denied to the community at large, produced elsewhere or produced using existing facilities. These facilities are probably less efficient and may therefore produce more pollution per unit of product than the new plant would. An objective, quantitative, urban-air-pollution model is clearly an essential component in such a decision-making process. Dr. Benarie has produced a distillation of existing modelling techniques which will, I hope, become the launching pad for many future models. As each city is unique, it will need its own tailor-made model, drawing on the best and the most appropriate techniques developed previously. Agreement with observations is the only real test of validity, because the physics and chemistry are so complicated that theoretical arguments are reduced to the role of assisting in the best formulation of the problem. Numerical precision must always rely on measurement. This is the approach that Dr. Benarie has adopted.--David J. Moore, Central Electricity Research Laboratires, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK

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      Front Matter

      Page(s): i - xv
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Contents, Foreword, Preface View full abstract»

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      Generalities about towns

      Page(s): 1 - 4
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      Air pollution calculations for urban areas

      Page(s): 5 - 26
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Air pollution calculation—or modelling? a semantic discussion, Outline, systematisation and purpose: engineering calculations, The bounds: what can be attempted and the limits of accuracy, How do we choose a model?, The verification of calculations: validation techniques, References View full abstract»

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      Multi-source gaussian plume concepts for short-time computations

      Page(s): 27 - 64
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Closed solutions of the diffusion equation, Second-order closure and other techniques, A summary of gaussian plume and analogous (sector) short-time models, References View full abstract»

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      Critical considerations and improvements to the short-time gaussian plume models

      Page(s): 65 - 87
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: A sensitivity analysis of the multiple-source gaussian plume urban diffusion model, Amendments relating to the basic gaussian short-time models, The gaussian plume model combined with street-canyon or highway submodules, References View full abstract»

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      The conservative volume element

      Page(s): 88 - 132
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Mass transport balance, A generalised numerical integration of the conservation equations for mass, heat, momentum, etc., Mass transport balance with chemical reactions, References View full abstract»

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      Multi-box models

      Page(s): 133 - 158
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Multi-box models without chemical reactions, Multi-box models with chemical reactions, Simple box models, Simple box models with chemical reactions, The simple box model as a street-level submodel, References View full abstract»

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      Rollback

      Page(s): 159 - 161
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      Empirical techniques

      Page(s): 162 - 169
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Adaptiye forecasting, The Kalman filtering technique, Source-oriented empirical transfer functions, References View full abstract»

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      Forecasting pollution

      Page(s): 170 - 203
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The delimitation of the subject matter, Forecasting air pollution potential, Forecasting urban air pollution concentration, Episode forecasting, Forecasting the concentration of accumulation episodes, Pollution forecasting by the use of frequency distribution patterns, References View full abstract»

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      Statistical relationships

      Page(s): 204 - 257
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Their correlation with meteorological parameters, Time series, References View full abstract»

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      Long-term plume models

      Page(s): 258 - 290
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Various long-term plume models, A comparative validation of long-term gaussian plume models, Some long-term results obtained from amended gaussian models, References View full abstract»

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      The simple box model for long-term averages

      Page(s): 291 - 298
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The integral application of the box concept to the whole urban area, The application of the multi-box concept to the urban area, References View full abstract»

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      The correlation with demographic parameters

      Page(s): 299 - 303
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      The concentration-frequency distribution

      Page(s): 304 - 312
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The log-normal representation of concentration, An averaging-time analysis, References View full abstract»

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      Relationships between the wind field and the concentration

      Page(s): 313 - 317
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      Validation, evaluation, qualification, confirmation and assessment

      Page(s): 318 - 354
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Validation, Comparative evaluation, Model qualification, Model assessment, References, Note added in proof View full abstract»

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      Conclusion

      Page(s): 355 - 358
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This book brings together the methods, models and formulae used for estimating air pollution concentrations in urban areas.From the Foreword The visible effects of pollution in most cities in the developed countries have been reduced dramatically in the past thirty years. This has been achieved to a large extent by the replacement of most of the low-level sources, which burnt raw coal, by more modern appliances using gas, electricity or low-sulphur oil. The killer smog of 1952 could not be repeated unless there were to be a massive return to old-fashioned heating methods, due, for example, to excessive environmental constraints being applied to the more modern energy sources. It is important, therefore, to judge the impact of a new source in terms of its effect on the pattern of existing sources. One should also consider the environmental consequences of rejecting the new installation and examine the alternatives--that its product may either be denied to the community at large, produced elsewhere or produced using existing facilities. These facilities are probably less efficient and may therefore produce more pollution per unit of product than the new plant would. An objective, quantitative, urban-air-pollution model is clearly an essential component in such a decision-making process. Dr. Benarie has produced a distillation of existing modelling techniques which will, I hope, become the launching pad for many future models. As each city is unique, it will need its own tailor-made model, drawing on the best and the most appropriate techniques developed previously. Agreement with observations is the only real test of validity, because the physics and chemistry are so complicated that theoretical arguments are reduced to the role of assisting in the best formulation of the problem. Numerical precision must always rely on measurement. This is the approach that Dr. Benarie has adopted.--David J. Moore, Central Electricity Research Laboratires, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK View full abstract»

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      Recent developments in modelling

      Page(s): 359 - 381
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Addendum to chapter 2, Addendum to chapter 3, Addendum to chapter 4, Addendum to chapter 5, Addendum to chapter 6, Addendum to chapter 9, Addendum to chapter 10, Addendum to chapter 14, Addendum to chapter 15, Addendum to chapter 16, References, Further addendum to chapter 3 View full abstract»

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      Author index

      Page(s): 382 - 391
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This book brings together the methods, models and formulae used for estimating air pollution concentrations in urban areas.From the Foreword The visible effects of pollution in most cities in the developed countries have been reduced dramatically in the past thirty years. This has been achieved to a large extent by the replacement of most of the low-level sources, which burnt raw coal, by more modern appliances using gas, electricity or low-sulphur oil. The killer smog of 1952 could not be repeated unless there were to be a massive return to old-fashioned heating methods, due, for example, to excessive environmental constraints being applied to the more modern energy sources. It is important, therefore, to judge the impact of a new source in terms of its effect on the pattern of existing sources. One should also consider the environmental consequences of rejecting the new installation and examine the alternatives--that its product may either be denied to the community at large, produced elsewhere or produced using existing facilities. These facilities are probably less efficient and may therefore produce more pollution per unit of product than the new plant would. An objective, quantitative, urban-air-pollution model is clearly an essential component in such a decision-making process. Dr. Benarie has produced a distillation of existing modelling techniques which will, I hope, become the launching pad for many future models. As each city is unique, it will need its own tailor-made model, drawing on the best and the most appropriate techniques developed previously. Agreement with observations is the only real test of validity, because the physics and chemistry are so complicated that theoretical arguments are reduced to the role of assisting in the best formulation of the problem. Numerical precision must always rely on measurement. This is the approach that Dr. Benarie has adopted.--David J. Moore, Central Electricity Research Laboratires, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Subject index

      Page(s): 392 - 405
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This book brings together the methods, models and formulae used for estimating air pollution concentrations in urban areas.From the Foreword The visible effects of pollution in most cities in the developed countries have been reduced dramatically in the past thirty years. This has been achieved to a large extent by the replacement of most of the low-level sources, which burnt raw coal, by more modern appliances using gas, electricity or low-sulphur oil. The killer smog of 1952 could not be repeated unless there were to be a massive return to old-fashioned heating methods, due, for example, to excessive environmental constraints being applied to the more modern energy sources. It is important, therefore, to judge the impact of a new source in terms of its effect on the pattern of existing sources. One should also consider the environmental consequences of rejecting the new installation and examine the alternatives--that its product may either be denied to the community at large, produced elsewhere or produced using existing facilities. These facilities are probably less efficient and may therefore produce more pollution per unit of product than the new plant would. An objective, quantitative, urban-air-pollution model is clearly an essential component in such a decision-making process. Dr. Benarie has produced a distillation of existing modelling techniques which will, I hope, become the launching pad for many future models. As each city is unique, it will need its own tailor-made model, drawing on the best and the most appropriate techniques developed previously. Agreement with observations is the only real test of validity, because the physics and chemistry are so complicated that theoretical arguments are reduced to the role of assisting in the best formulation of the problem. Numerical precision must always rely on measurement. This is the approach that Dr. Benarie has adopted.--David J. Moore, Central Electricity Research Laboratires, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK View full abstract»