By Topic

A Social History of Engineering

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2003
Author(s): W H G Armytage
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Engineering Profession
  • Print

Abstract

A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education.

  •   Click to expandTable of Contents

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Front Matter

      W H G Armytage Page(s): i - 16
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Preface, Contents, Illustrations View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      From Stone to Metal

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 17 - 22
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Urban Revolution, Britain about 2300-1400 B.C. and the Wessex Culture, Mycenae, The Rise of the Smith, The Phoenician Alphabet View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Greeks

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 23 - 28
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Samos, The First Town Planner, Athens: Crucible of Ideas, Alexander and the Diffusion of the Greek Spirit, The Museum at Alexandria, Early Technologists View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Romans

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 29 - 36
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Flat Campagna, Vitruvius, Water Engineering, Public Buildings, Roman Britain, Manpower, The Rise of Ingenium, ‘The Anonymous ’ and Labour-Saving, The Fall of the Roman Empire in the West View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Legacies of the East

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 37 - 42
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Chinese, The Indians, The Arabs, Cordoba: the Transmitter to the North West, The Barbarian Advances in the North West View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Anglo-French Civilization, 1100–1399

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 43 - 51
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Castle and Cathedral, Lenses and Instruments, Ingeniator to Engineer, Town Planning, Two Medieval Scientists: Roger Bacon and Peter the Pilgrim, The Power Revolution in Medieval England, The Medieval Fuels, Cannon Making, Gunpowder, The Craft Guilds View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Italian Ingenuity

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 52 - 59
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Florence, The Palladian Style, The New Cosmology, The Rise of a Scientific Language, Mathematical Contests and the Development of Algebra, The By-products of Commerce and War, Galileo and the Venetian Arsenal, The Dissemination of New Knowledge View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      German Miners and Metallurgists, 1450–1650

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 60 - 66
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Quest Beneath the Earth, Augsburg, The Spread of Technological Skills, The Rise of Mining Engineering, The Migration of Mining Engineering, Other Hydraulic Engineers, The Reaction on Chemistry, The Air-Pump, German Ingenuity View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Struggle with Water in Britain 1540–1740

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 67 - 82
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Demands of the Navy, The Timber Famine, The By-Problems of Mining, The Social Consequences of the Pump, The Draining of Fens, Making Rivers Navigable, Bacon and Technological Momentum, Bacon's Disciples, The Royal Society, Technological Literature, Newcomen's Engine, Its Application Outside Mining View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Power Revolution, 1740–1800

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 83 - 94
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Roads, The Millwrights, The Revolution in Materials, Enthusiasm for the Newcomen Engine, Its Effect : A Case History, Improvements to the Newcomen Engine, The Cortex of Change : Birmingham, The Development of the Steam Engine, The Steam Engine Replaces the Water Mill, Steam Boats, Speed-up of Spinning, The Last Years of the Monopoly, English Mechanical Engineers in France View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      French Influence and Example

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 95 - 105
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Canal du Midi and its Effect, The Needs of the Court: Conspicuous Consumption, The Académie Royale des Sciences, The Génie Officers, Invention in France and England: a Contrast, The Naval Aspect of British Civil Engineering View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Franco-British Wars, 1793–1815

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 106 - 124
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Increassing Importance of Chemistry, The Garnering of Talent in France, The Production of War Material in Britain, The Development of Steam Power in Britain, The Steam Engine on Wheels, The Steam Engine Afloat, The British Army, America and the Rise of Production Engineering, British Machine-tools and Mass Manufacture, The Development of Civil Engineering in Britain, The Generalizing of Applied Science View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Age of the Mechanical Engineer, 1815–1857

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 125 - 137
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Liverpool: Funnel of Trade, The Machine Tools Industry, The Maudslay Nursery, Babbage and Bodmer, The Railway Booms, Problems of the Permanent Way, The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, The Railway and the City, Steam on the Land, Steam on the Seaways, The Rise of Marine Engineering, The Great Eastern, The Telegraph and Cable View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      New Horizons in Britain, 1815–1854

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 138 - 152
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Benthamites, Municipal Engineering, The Stigmata of Industrialization, Steam Intellect Societies, The Growth of Scientific Groups, Sir George Cayley, The Dying Amateurs of Science, The Beginnings of Professional Training for Engineers, Theory of Prime Movers, The School of Mines View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Crimean War and After, 1854–1857

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 153 - 161
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Bessemer, The Companies' Act of 1862, The Effect on Railways, The Rise of Armstrongs, The Rise of the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Industry, The War Panics, The Expansion of Small Arms Production View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      India: Challenge and Stimulant

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 162 - 167
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Engineering up to 1857, The Consequences of the Mutiny, The Suez Canal and its Effects, Cooper's Hill, 1871–1906, The Indian Laboratory View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The American Civil War and After

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 168 - 184
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Northern Army, The ‘Chicago School’, The Development of Skilled Labour in the North, Engineering in the South, The Sevenfold Revolution in Naval Engineering, The Growth of Standardization, The Rise of the American Steel Industry, Science and the Government, Patents, Communication Breeds New Technologies, The Rise of Business Machines, The Yankee Stimulus to Britain, The Growth of Technical Journalism in Britain View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The German Exemplar

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 185 - 194
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The German Chemists, Educational Engineering, Otto and Daimler, The Compression-Ignition Engine, The Politics of Power, German Influence on England View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Generation of Electricity

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 195 - 206
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Development of Water Power, The French Turbine, American Experiments, The Centrifugal Pump, The Steam Turbine, The Parsons Steam Turbine, The Turbine and Electric Power, Developments in Lighting, Ferranti and High Pressure Current, The Sophistication of the Steam Turbine, The Liberator of New Materials, The Revolution in Transport, The Slow Adoption of Electrical Power in England View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Processing of Molecules to 1914

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 207 - 217
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Coal Distillation, The Recovery of Wastes: Sulphuric Acid, Cheap Soda and Soap, Laboratory-made Substitutes, Other Scarcities: Paper, Rubber, Bone and Explosives, The Rise of Chemical Engineering, Man-made Fibres, The Research Team View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Internal Combustion Revolution to 1914

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 218 - 229
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Decline of the Steam Carriage, Work on the Internal Combustion Engine, British Cycle Engineers, The Lifting of Restrictions in England, 1896, The Motor Engineer, The Improvement of Roads, The Internal Combustion Engine takes to the Air, The Revolution in Transport View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Social Adjustment in Britain, 1867–1914

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 230 - 250
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Intimations of Mortality, The Civic Universities, The Need for Central Stimulus, The Rise of New Industrial States: Japan, The Training of Engineers, The Growing Concern of the Government, The Spirit of Emulation Fostered, The Bell Tolls Again, 1887, The Iron and Steel Institute, 1869, The Mining Associations, 1887–1889, Association for the Promotion of Technical Education, 1887, The Fabians, Collateral Developments, An Early Operationalist, The Service Groups of Municipal Socialism, The New Professionals, The British Standards Institution, The Critics Within, Government Patronage of Engineering, 1900–1914, An Engineering Pressure Group View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The First World War and after, 1914–1935

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 251 - 265
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: D.S.I.R. and the Research Associations, Explosives and Chemical Engineers, Four New Chemical Pressure Groups, 1916–1922, The Development of Rayon and the Rise of Synthetic Fibres, The Aeroplane, The Rise of Radio, The Genesis of the National Certificate System, The Changed Position of British Industry, 1919–1935, The Rise of the Motor Industry, The Social Impact of the Motor Car, The Problem of the Roads, The Great Combines, New Professional Groups View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The American Oasis and the Twentieth Century

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 266 - 281
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The New Fuel and its Technology, The Automobile and the Assembly Line, The Aeroplane Industry, The Cracking of the New Larder: Petroleum, The Sinews of Hegemony, The Development of Electric Power, New Media, Electrical Techniques, Science And Society: Multi-purpose Hydro-electric Schemes, Production Engineering, Taylorism in Europe View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Awakening of the Russian Giant, 1920–1946

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 282 - 293
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Petrine Precedents, Foreigns Kills and Russian Development up to the Revolution, Why Did Russia Fall Behind Europe?, The Planned Exploitation of Power, The Built-in Accelerators, The Organization of Research, The Rise of China View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Purpose and Planning in Britain, 1935–1945

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 294 - 305
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Britain, the Island Arsenal, The Development of Reaction Propulsion, A New Source of Energy, The Therapeutic Effects of the War in Britain, Roads and Motor-cars, Petro-chemicals View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Sinews of a New State, 1945–1964

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 306 - 322
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Challenge of Europe, Research: The Key to Innovation, High Speed Computers, Automation, Atomic Power, The Spectrum Widens, The Problem of Stress and Strain, Scientific Manpower, From Cats to Universities, Clinging to Coat Tails, Partner or Pensioner?, The Peremptory Challenge, Guide Lines of Advance View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Endless Frontier

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 323 - 334
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Engineer's Aesthetic and Intellectual Contributions, Towards Network Analysis, Some Current Social Implications and Problems, The Professional Spirit in Engineering, The Trends of History, Energy on Tap, Power: Past and Future, Inventions and Human Development View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Bibliographies

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 335 - 353
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 13, Chapter 14, Chapter 15, Chapter 16, Chapter 17, Chapter 18, Chapter 19, Chapter 20, Chapter 21, Chapter 22, Chapter 23, Chapter 24, Chapter 25, Chapter 26, Chapter 27, General Bibliography View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      List of Professional Institutions

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 354 - 357
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index of Subjects and Places

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 359 - 367
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index of Persons

      W H G Armytage Page(s): 368 - 378
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»