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A Social History of Engineering

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2003
Author(s): Armytage, W.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Engineering Profession
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Abstract

A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education.

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      Front Matter

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): i - 16
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Preface, Contents, Illustrations View full abstract»

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      From Stone to Metal

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 17 - 22
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Urban Revolution, Britain about 2300-1400 B.C. and the Wessex Culture, Mycenae, The Rise of the Smith, The Phoenician Alphabet View full abstract»

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      The Greeks

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 23 - 28
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Samos, The First Town Planner, Athens: Crucible of Ideas, Alexander and the Diffusion of the Greek Spirit, The Museum at Alexandria, Early Technologists View full abstract»

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      The Romans

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 29 - 36
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Flat Campagna, Vitruvius, Water Engineering, Public Buildings, Roman Britain, Manpower, The Rise of Ingenium, ‘The Anonymous ’ and Labour-Saving, The Fall of the Roman Empire in the West View full abstract»

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      The Legacies of the East

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 37 - 42
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Chinese, The Indians, The Arabs, Cordoba: the Transmitter to the North West, The Barbarian Advances in the North West View full abstract»

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      Anglo-French Civilization, 1100–1399

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 43 - 51
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Castle and Cathedral, Lenses and Instruments, Ingeniator to Engineer, Town Planning, Two Medieval Scientists: Roger Bacon and Peter the Pilgrim, The Power Revolution in Medieval England, The Medieval Fuels, Cannon Making, Gunpowder, The Craft Guilds View full abstract»

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      Italian Ingenuity

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 52 - 59
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Florence, The Palladian Style, The New Cosmology, The Rise of a Scientific Language, Mathematical Contests and the Development of Algebra, The By-products of Commerce and War, Galileo and the Venetian Arsenal, The Dissemination of New Knowledge View full abstract»

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      German Miners and Metallurgists, 1450–1650

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 60 - 66
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Quest Beneath the Earth, Augsburg, The Spread of Technological Skills, The Rise of Mining Engineering, The Migration of Mining Engineering, Other Hydraulic Engineers, The Reaction on Chemistry, The Air-Pump, German Ingenuity View full abstract»

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      The Struggle with Water in Britain 1540–1740

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 67 - 82
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Demands of the Navy, The Timber Famine, The By-Problems of Mining, The Social Consequences of the Pump, The Draining of Fens, Making Rivers Navigable, Bacon and Technological Momentum, Bacon's Disciples, The Royal Society, Technological Literature, Newcomen's Engine, Its Application Outside Mining View full abstract»

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      The Power Revolution, 1740–1800

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 83 - 94
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Roads, The Millwrights, The Revolution in Materials, Enthusiasm for the Newcomen Engine, Its Effect : A Case History, Improvements to the Newcomen Engine, The Cortex of Change : Birmingham, The Development of the Steam Engine, The Steam Engine Replaces the Water Mill, Steam Boats, Speed-up of Spinning, The Last Years of the Monopoly, English Mechanical Engineers in France View full abstract»

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      French Influence and Example

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 95 - 105
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Canal du Midi and its Effect, The Needs of the Court: Conspicuous Consumption, The Académie Royale des Sciences, The Génie Officers, Invention in France and England: a Contrast, The Naval Aspect of British Civil Engineering View full abstract»

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      The Franco-British Wars, 1793–1815

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 106 - 124
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Increassing Importance of Chemistry, The Garnering of Talent in France, The Production of War Material in Britain, The Development of Steam Power in Britain, The Steam Engine on Wheels, The Steam Engine Afloat, The British Army, America and the Rise of Production Engineering, British Machine-tools and Mass Manufacture, The Development of Civil Engineering in Britain, The Generalizing of Applied Science View full abstract»

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      The Age of the Mechanical Engineer, 1815–1857

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 125 - 137
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Liverpool: Funnel of Trade, The Machine Tools Industry, The Maudslay Nursery, Babbage and Bodmer, The Railway Booms, Problems of the Permanent Way, The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, The Railway and the City, Steam on the Land, Steam on the Seaways, The Rise of Marine Engineering, The Great Eastern, The Telegraph and Cable View full abstract»

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      New Horizons in Britain, 1815–1854

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 138 - 152
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Benthamites, Municipal Engineering, The Stigmata of Industrialization, Steam Intellect Societies, The Growth of Scientific Groups, Sir George Cayley, The Dying Amateurs of Science, The Beginnings of Professional Training for Engineers, Theory of Prime Movers, The School of Mines View full abstract»

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      The Crimean War and After, 1854–1857

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 153 - 161
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Bessemer, The Companies' Act of 1862, The Effect on Railways, The Rise of Armstrongs, The Rise of the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Industry, The War Panics, The Expansion of Small Arms Production View full abstract»

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      India: Challenge and Stimulant

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 162 - 167
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Engineering up to 1857, The Consequences of the Mutiny, The Suez Canal and its Effects, Cooper's Hill, 1871–1906, The Indian Laboratory View full abstract»

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      The American Civil War and After

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 168 - 184
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Northern Army, The ‘Chicago School’, The Development of Skilled Labour in the North, Engineering in the South, The Sevenfold Revolution in Naval Engineering, The Growth of Standardization, The Rise of the American Steel Industry, Science and the Government, Patents, Communication Breeds New Technologies, The Rise of Business Machines, The Yankee Stimulus to Britain, The Growth of Technical Journalism in Britain View full abstract»

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      The German Exemplar

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 185 - 194
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The German Chemists, Educational Engineering, Otto and Daimler, The Compression-Ignition Engine, The Politics of Power, German Influence on England View full abstract»

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      The Generation of Electricity

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 195 - 206
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Development of Water Power, The French Turbine, American Experiments, The Centrifugal Pump, The Steam Turbine, The Parsons Steam Turbine, The Turbine and Electric Power, Developments in Lighting, Ferranti and High Pressure Current, The Sophistication of the Steam Turbine, The Liberator of New Materials, The Revolution in Transport, The Slow Adoption of Electrical Power in England View full abstract»

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      The Processing of Molecules to 1914

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 207 - 217
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Coal Distillation, The Recovery of Wastes: Sulphuric Acid, Cheap Soda and Soap, Laboratory-made Substitutes, Other Scarcities: Paper, Rubber, Bone and Explosives, The Rise of Chemical Engineering, Man-made Fibres, The Research Team View full abstract»

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      The Internal Combustion Revolution to 1914

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 218 - 229
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Decline of the Steam Carriage, Work on the Internal Combustion Engine, British Cycle Engineers, The Lifting of Restrictions in England, 1896, The Motor Engineer, The Improvement of Roads, The Internal Combustion Engine takes to the Air, The Revolution in Transport View full abstract»

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      Social Adjustment in Britain, 1867–1914

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 230 - 250
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Intimations of Mortality, The Civic Universities, The Need for Central Stimulus, The Rise of New Industrial States: Japan, The Training of Engineers, The Growing Concern of the Government, The Spirit of Emulation Fostered, The Bell Tolls Again, 1887, The Iron and Steel Institute, 1869, The Mining Associations, 1887–1889, Association for the Promotion of Technical Education, 1887, The Fabians, Collateral Developments, An Early Operationalist, The Service Groups of Municipal Socialism, The New Professionals, The British Standards Institution, The Critics Within, Government Patronage of Engineering, 1900–1914, An Engineering Pressure Group View full abstract»

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      The First World War and after, 1914–1935

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 251 - 265
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: D.S.I.R. and the Research Associations, Explosives and Chemical Engineers, Four New Chemical Pressure Groups, 1916–1922, The Development of Rayon and the Rise of Synthetic Fibres, The Aeroplane, The Rise of Radio, The Genesis of the National Certificate System, The Changed Position of British Industry, 1919–1935, The Rise of the Motor Industry, The Social Impact of the Motor Car, The Problem of the Roads, The Great Combines, New Professional Groups View full abstract»

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      The American Oasis and the Twentieth Century

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 266 - 281
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The New Fuel and its Technology, The Automobile and the Assembly Line, The Aeroplane Industry, The Cracking of the New Larder: Petroleum, The Sinews of Hegemony, The Development of Electric Power, New Media, Electrical Techniques, Science And Society: Multi-purpose Hydro-electric Schemes, Production Engineering, Taylorism in Europe View full abstract»

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      The Awakening of the Russian Giant, 1920–1946

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 282 - 293
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Petrine Precedents, Foreigns Kills and Russian Development up to the Revolution, Why Did Russia Fall Behind Europe?, The Planned Exploitation of Power, The Built-in Accelerators, The Organization of Research, The Rise of China View full abstract»

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      Purpose and Planning in Britain, 1935–1945

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 294 - 305
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Britain, the Island Arsenal, The Development of Reaction Propulsion, A New Source of Energy, The Therapeutic Effects of the War in Britain, Roads and Motor-cars, Petro-chemicals View full abstract»

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      The Sinews of a New State, 1945–1964

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 306 - 322
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Challenge of Europe, Research: The Key to Innovation, High Speed Computers, Automation, Atomic Power, The Spectrum Widens, The Problem of Stress and Strain, Scientific Manpower, From Cats to Universities, Clinging to Coat Tails, Partner or Pensioner?, The Peremptory Challenge, Guide Lines of Advance View full abstract»

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      The Endless Frontier

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 323 - 334
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Engineer's Aesthetic and Intellectual Contributions, Towards Network Analysis, Some Current Social Implications and Problems, The Professional Spirit in Engineering, The Trends of History, Energy on Tap, Power: Past and Future, Inventions and Human Development View full abstract»

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      Bibliographies

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 335 - 353
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 13, Chapter 14, Chapter 15, Chapter 16, Chapter 17, Chapter 18, Chapter 19, Chapter 20, Chapter 21, Chapter 22, Chapter 23, Chapter 24, Chapter 25, Chapter 26, Chapter 27, General Bibliography View full abstract»

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      List of Professional Institutions

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 354 - 357
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index of Subjects and Places

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 359 - 367
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index of Persons

      Armytage, W.
      A Social History of Engineering

      Page(s): 368 - 378
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      A Social History of Engineering shows how social and economic conditions in each age have precipitated advances in engineering. There are, in short, economic, political, and philosophical implications in changing technologies. While the book begins with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the bulk of the volume concentrates on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A Social History of Engineering reflects Professor Armytage's special subject area interests, namely nineteenth-century industrial society, radical and socialist movements, the history of professional organization, and the study of higher and technical education. View full abstract»