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Power Generation and Environmental Change

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2003
Author(s): Berkowitz, D.; Squires, A.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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Abstract

Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity.

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      Front Matter

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): i - xxiii
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England, Title, Copyright, Contents, Preface, Committee on Environmental Alteration, List of Contributors View full abstract»

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      Power, Man, and Environment

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 1
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

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      Environmental Science and Public Policy

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 3 - 6
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: References View full abstract»

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      Power Generation and Human Ecology

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 7 - 10
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

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      Future Needs for Power from Coal

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 11 - 19
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: What Are the Future Needs of Coal?, Discussion, References View full abstract»

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      Nuclear Power and Radionuclides in the Environment

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 21
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

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      Nuclear Power Reactors and the Radioactive Environment

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 23 - 43
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Radioactive Releases to the Environment, Limits of Permissible Release of Radioactive Wastes, Experience in the Atomic Energy Commission's Program, Discussion, References View full abstract»

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      Nuclear Reactors and the Public Health and Safety

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 44 - 60
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Maximum Permissible Concentrations, The “Primary” Radiation Exposure Guidelines, Radiation and Cancer, The Genetic Consequences of Radiation, References View full abstract»

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      Other Views on Public Health and Safety

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 61 - 81
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Comments on “Nuclear Reactors and the Public Health and Safety”, Comments on “Nuclear Reactors and the Public Health and Safety”, Low-Level Radiation and Health of the Public View full abstract»

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      Investigation of the Effects of X-Ray Exposure of Human Female Fetuses as Measured by Later Reproductive Performance: Interim Summary

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 82 - 93
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Pelvimetry F2 Study, Discussion, References View full abstract»

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      Radiation Dose Limits

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 94 - 106
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The Report, Natural Background Exposure, Medical Exposure, Additional Exposure, References View full abstract»

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      Radiation Doses from Fossil-Fuel and Nuclear Power Plants

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 107 - 130
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Data and Observations, Discussion Questions for Part II View full abstract»

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      Hydroelectric Power

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 131
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Ecological Effects of Hydroelectric Dams

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 133 - 157
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Physical Systems, Biological Systems, Human Systems, Conclusion, References View full abstract»

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      Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Projects

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 158 - 172
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Technical Description, Environmental Aspects, Summary, References View full abstract»

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      Fossil-Fuel Power

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 173
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

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      Clean Power from Coal, at a Profit

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 175 - 227
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: History of Coal-Firing Techniques, Pulverized Fuel Combustion in Trouble, Rethinking Coal Combustion, Unit Combining Lurgi Gasifiers with Gas and Steam Turbines, Directing Coal Combustion Developments into Paths Dealing with SO2, Long-Range Perspective for Coal, Reordering the Priority Accorded to Coal Engineering, Postscript, References View full abstract»

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      Dealing with Sulfur in Residual Fuel Oil

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 228 - 245
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Problems Faced by Fuel Suppliers, Removing Sulfur at the Refinery, Removing Sulfur at the Power Station, References View full abstract»

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      Climatic Consequences of Increased Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 246 - 262
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Observed Changes in the Atmospheric Content of Carbon Dioxide, Sources of Carbon Dioxide, Conclusions, Discussion, References View full abstract»

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      Atmospheric Chemistry

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 263 - 288
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Polluted Atmosphere, The Stratosphere and the Mesosphere, Summary, References View full abstract»

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      The Fate of SO2 and NOχ in the Atmosphere

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 289 - 301
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      An Isotope-Ratio Method for Tracing Atmospheric Sulfur Pollutants

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 302 - 316
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Environmental Aspects of Coal Mining

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 317 - 339
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Coal Mining and the Environment, Subsidence, Mine Fires, Refuse Banks, Strip Mining, Acid Mine Drainage, Conclusions, Discussion, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Waste Heat

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 341
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Environmental Quality and the Economics of Cooling

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 343 - 350
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Activities of the Department of the Interior, The Dimensions of Thermal Pollution, Effects of Thermal Pollution, Water Quality Standards, Thermal Pollution Control, Conclusion View full abstract»

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      Impact of Waste Heat on Aquatic Ecology

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 351 - 364
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      Thermal Effects — a Potential Problem in Perspective

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 365 - 386
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Electric Power Growth, Cooling-Water Needs, Thermal Efficiencies, Cooling-Water Control Technology, AEC Program on Thermal Effects, Expanded Federal Program in Thermal Effects, Summary, References View full abstract»

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      Comments on the Use and Abuse of Energy in the American Economy

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 387 - 393
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains section titled: References View full abstract»

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      Alternative Technologies for Discharging Waste Heat

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 394 - 411
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Heat Rejection to the Environment, Uses for Rejected Heat, Conclusion, References View full abstract»

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      Glossary of Nuclear Terms and Units

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 412 - 414
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Curie (Ci), Roentgen (R), Rad, RBE, Rem (rem) View full abstract»

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      Index

      Berkowitz, D. ; Squires, A.
      Power Generation and Environmental Change

      Page(s): 415 - 440
      Copyright Year: 2003

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity. View full abstract»