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Reasoning About Knowledge

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2004
Author(s): Fagin, R.; Halpern, J.; Moses, Y.; Vardi, M.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Engineering Profession
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Abstract

Reasoning about knowledge--particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge--was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms.Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes.

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      Front Matter

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): i - xv
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Dedication, Contents, Preface to the Hardcover Edition, Preface to the Paperback Edition View full abstract»

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      Introduction and Overview

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 1 - 14
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The “Muddy Children” Puzzle, An Overview of the Book, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      A Model for Knowledge

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 15 - 47
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Possible-Worlds Model, Adding Common Knowledge and Distributed Knowledge, The Muddy Children Revisited, The Properties of Knowledge, An Event-Based Approach, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Completeness and Complexity

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 49 - 107
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Completeness Results, Decidability, Incorporating Common Knowledge, Incorporating Distributed Knowledge, The Complexity of the Validity Problem, NP-Completeness Results for S5 and KD45, The First-Order Logic of Knowledge, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Knowledge in Multi-Agent Systems

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 109 - 161
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Runs and Systems, Incorporating Knowledge, Incorporating Time, Examples of Systems, Knowledge Gain in A.M.P. Systems, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Protocols and Programs

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 163 - 188
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Actions, Protocols and Contexts, Programs, Specifications, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Common Knowledge and Agreement

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 189 - 252
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Coordinated Attack, Agreeing to Disagree, Simultaneous Byzantine Agreement, Nonrigid Sets and Common Knowledge, Attaining SBA, Attaining Common Knowledge, Detailed Proofs, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Knowledge-Based Programming

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 253 - 302
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Knowledge-Based Programs, Getting Unique Representations, Knowledge Bases Revisited, A Knowledge-Based Program for SBA, Strong Correctness, The Sequence-Transmission Problem, Proving Strong Correctness of ST, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Evolving Knowledge

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 303 - 331
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Properties of Knowledge and Time, Synchrony and Perfect Recall, Knowledge and Time in A.M.P. Systems, Knowledge and Time in Inoa (Φ), A Closer Look at Axiom OAn, Φ, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Logical Omniscience

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 333 - 389
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Logical Omniscience, Explicit Representation of Knowledge, Nonstandard Logic, Impossible Worlds, Awareness, Local Reasoning, Concluding Remarks, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Knowledge and Computation

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 391 - 413
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Knowledge and Action Revisited, Algorithmic Knowledge, Examples, Algorithmic Knowledge Programs, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Common Knowledge Revisited

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 415 - 461
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Common Knowledge as a Conjunction, Common Knowledge and Simultaneity, Temporal Imprecision, The Granularity of Time, Common Knowledge as a Fixed Point, Approximations of Common Knowledge, Discussion, Exercises, Notes View full abstract»

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      Bibliography

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 463 - 487
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Reasoning about knowledge--particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge--was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms.Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Symbol Index

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 488 - 490
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Reasoning about knowledge--particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge--was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms.Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Fagin, R. ; Halpern, J. ; Moses, Y. ; Vardi, M.
      Reasoning About Knowledge

      Page(s): 491 - 515
      Copyright Year: 2004

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Reasoning about knowledge--particularly the knowledge of agents who reason about the world and each other's knowledge--was once the exclusive province of philosophers and puzzle solvers. More recently, this type of reasoning has been shown to play a key role in a surprising number of contexts, from understanding conversations to the analysis of distributed computer algorithms.Reasoning About Knowledge is the first book to provide a general discussion of approaches to reasoning about knowledge and its applications to distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and game theory. It brings eight years of work by the authors into a cohesive framework for understanding and analyzing reasoning about knowledge that is intuitive, mathematically well founded, useful in practice, and widely applicable. The book is almost completely self-contained and should be accessible to readers in a variety of disciplines, including computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, and game theory. Each chapter includes exercises and bibliographic notes. View full abstract»