Global Biomass Burning:Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1991
Author(s): Joel S. Levine
Book Type: MIT Press
Content Type : Books
Topics: Geoscience
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Abstract

The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications.

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      Front Matter

      Page(s): i - xxx
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Contents, Contributors, Introduction View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: Remote Sensing and Global and Geographical Distribution

      Page(s): 1
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: Its History, Use, and Distribution and Its Impact on Environmental Quality and Global Climate

      Page(s): 3 - 21
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The History of Fire, Emissions to the Atmosphere from Biomass Burning, Transport and Photochemistry in the Smoke Plumes, Environmental Impacts View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning Studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project

      Page(s): 22 - 28
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, Impact of Biomass Burning on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Astronaut Observations of Global Biomass Burning

      Page(s): 29 - 40
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Astronaut Observations of the Earth, Examples of Biomass Burning Photography, Global Burning in 1985: A First Estimate, Biomass Burning in the Amazon, 1973 to 1988: Where There's Smoke, There's Fire, Speculations on Biomass Burning and Climate and Weather Changes, Acknowledgment View full abstract»

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      Geostationary Satellite Estimation of Biomass Burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

      Page(s): 41 - 46
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Technique Description, Additional Considerations, Results, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Remote Sensing of Biomass Burning in West Africa with NOAA-AVHRR

      Page(s): 47 - 52
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Geographic Localization of the Region Studied, Equipment and Methods, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Characterization of Active Fires in West African Savannas by Analysis of Satellite Data: Landsat Thematic Mapper

      Page(s): 53 - 60
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Equipment and Methods, Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion View full abstract»

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      The Great Chinese Fire of 1987: A View from Space

      Page(s): 61 - 66
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Imagery Examination, Area Determinations, Summary View full abstract»

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      Problems in Global Fire Evaluation: Is Remote Sensing the Solution?

      Page(s): 67 - 73
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Fire as Signal, Sensor Problems, Conclusions, Notes View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in Tropical Ecosystems

      Page(s): 75
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning and the Disappearing Tropical Rainforest

      Page(s): 77 - 82
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Tropical Wild-land Fires and Global Changes: Prehistoric Evidence, Present Fire Regimes, and Future Trends

      Page(s): 83 - 91
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Prehistoric Evidence, Present Fire Regimes, Future Trends, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Greenhouse Gas Contributions from Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia

      Page(s): 92 - 105
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Deforestation Rates, Release of Greenhouse Gases, The Fate of Carbon Stocks, Discussion and Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in the Brazilian Amazon Region: Measurements of CO and O3

      Page(s): 106 - 111
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Results, Emissions of Carbon to the Atmosphere: The Global Contribution, The Direct Measurement: A Proposal, Calculation of the Emission Rate: An Example, The International Cooperation Perspective View full abstract»

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      Ozone Concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia During BASE-A

      Page(s): 112 - 114
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Methodology, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      A Comparison of Wet and Dry Season Ozone and CO over Brazil Using In Situ and Satellite Measurements

      Page(s): 115 - 121
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Data, Seasonality of Ozone and CO, Transport, Summary and Discussion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Effects of Vegetation Burning on the Atmospheric Chemistry of the Venezuelan Savanna

      Page(s): 122 - 125
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Venezuelan Savanna Climatic Region, Chemical Composition of Rain during Burning Periods, Atmospheric Concentrations of Gases, Airborne Particles, Soil Emission after Vegetation Burning View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in Africa: An Assessment of Annually Burned Biomass

      Page(s): 126 - 132
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Assessment of Biomass Burned Annually in Africa, Seasonal Distribution of Fires, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in West African Savannas

      Page(s): 133 - 142
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Major Characteristics of Fire in West Africa, Burning as a Function of Plant Cover, Proportion of Bnrned Area, Calculating C and CO2 Release from Savanna Burning, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from West Mrica, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Tropospheric Ozone and Biomass Burning in Intertropical Africa

      Page(s): 143 - 146
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Savanna Burning and Convective Mixing in Southern Africa: Implications for CO Emissions and Transport

      Page(s): 147 - 154
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Carbon Monoxide, MAPS CO Data, CO Mass Transport Calculations, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Light Hydrocarbons Emissions from African Savanna Burnings

      Page(s): 155 - 161
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Experiment, Results, Discussion and Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Emissions of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur from Biomass Burning in Nigeria

      Page(s): 162 - 166
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Extent of Biomass Burning by Geographical Area, Estimation of Emission Rates, Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling of Elements, Discussion, Acknowledgment View full abstract»

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      Influence of Biomass Burning Emissions on Precipitation Chemistry in the Equatorial Forests of Africa

      Page(s): 167 - 173
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Biomass Burning Source of Gases and Particles in Africa, Precipitation Chemistry in the Equatorial Forests of Congo, Biomass Burning Contribution to Precipitation Chemistry, Nitrate Content of Rain as an Indicator of Biomass Burning, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning Aerosols in a Savanna Region of the Ivory Coast

      Page(s): 174 - 180
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experiment Procedure, Results, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Long-Lived Radon Daughters Signature of Savanna Fires

      Page(s): 181 - 184
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Measurements and Results, Radionuclides in Grass, Comparison to Other Combustion Products, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in India

      Page(s): 185 - 193
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Fires in Forests, Agricultural and Grassland Fires, Biofuels to Meet Energy Needs, Emissions Reductions Due to Improvements in Cooking Stove Efficiencies, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning in Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems

      Page(s): 195
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      The Extent and Impact of Forest Fires in Northern Circumpolar Countries

      Page(s): 197 - 202
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Forest Fire Activity, Fire Emissions and Atmospheric Impact, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Trace Gas and Particulate Emissions from Biomass Burning in Temperate Ecosystems

      Page(s): 203 - 208
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Fires, Sample Collections, Chemical Analyses, Results and Discussion, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Particulate and Trace Gas Emissions from Large Biomass Fires in North America

      Page(s): 209 - 224
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Particle Emission Factors, Particle Size Distributions, Optical Properties, Biomass Smokes as a Source of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Cloud and Precipitation Scavenging of Smokes, Trace Gas Emissions, Summary and Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Ammonia and Nitric Acid Emissions from Wetlands and Boreal Forest Fires

      Page(s): 225 - 229
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experiment Procedure, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      FTIR Remote Sensing of Biomass Burning Emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, CH20, NO, N02, NH3, and N20

      Page(s): 230 - 239
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experiment Procedure, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Aerosol Characterization in Smoke Plumes from a Wetlands Fire

      Page(s): 240 - 244
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Merritt Island Prescribed Fire, Measurement Procedure View full abstract»

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      The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire

      Page(s): 245 - 257
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Experimental Methods, Presentation of Data, Discussion, Summary and Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Carbonaceous Aerosols from Prescribed Burning of a Boreal Forest Ecosystem

      Page(s): 258 - 263
      Copyright Year: 1991

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      This chapter contains sections titled: Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: Combustion Emissions, Satellite Imagery, and Biogenic Emissions

      Page(s): 264 - 271
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Estimates of Gaseous Emissions from Biomass Burning Using Satellite Imagery, Microbial Biogenic Emissions, Biogenic Emissions of N2O and NO, Biogenic Emissions of CH4, Biomass Burning: A Global Phenomenon View full abstract»

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      Changes in Marsh Soils for Six Months after a Fire

      Page(s): 272 - 286
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Study Area, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: Laboratory Studies

      Page(s): 288
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Experimental Evaluation of Biomass Burning Emissions: Nitrogen and Carbon Containing Compounds

      Page(s): 289 - 304
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experimental Section, Results and Discussion, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Quantitative Assessment of Gaseous and Condensed Phase Emissions from Open Burning of Biomass in a Combustion Wind Tunnel

      Page(s): 305 - 317
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Wind Tunnel Design, Wind Tunnel Description, Flow and Fire Characterization, Emissions Testing, Results, Summary and Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning and the Global Carbon Budget

      Page(s): 319
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning from the Perspective of the Global Carbon Cycle

      Page(s): 321 - 325
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Estimates of the Annual Emissions of Carbon, Complementary Issues of Biomass Burning and Land Use, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      The Response of Atmospheric CO2 to Changes in Land Use

      Page(s): 326 - 338
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Methods, The Simulations, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      The Contribution of Biomass Burning to the Carbon Budget of the Canadian Forest Sector: A Conceptual Model

      Page(s): 339 - 344
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Carbon Budget Model Structure, Application to Policy Questions, Future Research, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Modeling Trace Gas Emissions from Biomass Burning

      Page(s): 345 - 350
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Estimating the Emissions of Trace Gases from Biomass Burning, Modeling Approach, Model Description, Model Results, Satellite Observations and Trace Gas Emissions from Biomass Burning, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Impact of Biomass Burning on Tropospheric CO and OH: A Two-Dimensional Study

      Page(s): 351 - 359
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Model Description, Results, Discussion and Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning and the Global Nitrogen Budget

      Page(s): 361
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      The Global Impact of Biomass Burning on Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen

      Page(s): 363 - 369
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Sources of NO2, Observed NOy Wet Deposition and Surface Mixing Ratios, GCTM Simulations and Comparisons with Observations, Summary, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: A Source of Nitrogen Oxides in the Atmosphere

      Page(s): 370 - 375
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Emission Factors, Biomass, NOx Emissions, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Biomass Burning

      Page(s): 376 - 378
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experiment Procedure, Results, Discussion View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning and Particulates

      Page(s): 380
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      The Particulate Matter from Biomass Burning: A Tutorial and Critical Review of Its Radiative Impact

      Page(s): 381 - 386
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Physicochemical and Radiative Characteristics of Smoke Particles, Influence of a Smoke Layer on the Solar Radiation, Measurement of the Single Scattering Albedo, Conclusion View full abstract»

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      The Role of Biomass Burning in the Budget and Cycle of Carbonaceous Soot Aerosols and Their Climate Impact

      Page(s): 387 - 393
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Sources of Aerosol Particles and Soot in the Tropics, Model Description, Results, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Characteristics of Smoke Emissions from Biomass Fires of the Amazon Region-BASE-A Experiment

      Page(s): 394 - 402
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Methods, Sample Collection and Concentrations, In-plume Samples, Results and Discussion, Development of Gas-to-Particulate Matter Mass Ratios, Calculation of Atmospheric Loading of PM2-5, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Optical Properties of Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Tropics, BASE-A

      Page(s): 403 - 411
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Method, Ground-Based Observations, Airborne Observations, Summary of the Smoke Optical Model, Single Scattering Albedo and Graphitic Carbon, Application to Radiance Measurements, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      Effects of Fire Behavior on Prescribed Fire Smoke Characteristics: A Case Study

      Page(s): 412 - 419
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experimental Methods, Results, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      A Numerical Simulation of the Aerosol-Cloud Interactions and Atmospheric Dynamics of the Hardiman Township, Ontario, Prescribed Burn

      Page(s): 420 - 426
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Description of Models, A Parameterization for Nucleation Scavenging of Smoke, A Numerical Simulation of the Hardiman Fire, A Comparison of the Simulated and Measured Drop Size Distributions, Summary and Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Impact of Carbonaceous Fuel Burning on Arctic Aerosols: Silicon as an Indicator of Long-Range Transport of Coal Smoke

      Page(s): 427 - 430
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Contribution of Carbonaceous Fuel Combustion Emissions to the Arctic Haze, Silicon as an Indicator of Long-Range Transport of Coal Smoke to the Arctic, Final Remarks, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Cloud Condensation Nuclei from Biomass Burning

      Page(s): 431 - 438
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Experimental Procedure, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning and Climate

      Page(s): 440
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      The Contribution of Biomass Burning to Global Warming: An Integrated Assessment

      Page(s): 441 - 444
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Global Emissions from Biomass Burning, Global Warming Potential, Assessment Model, Discussion, Conclusion View full abstract»

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      Policy Options for Managing Biomass Burning to Mitigate Global Climate Change

      Page(s): 445 - 456
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Biomass Burning: The Policy Context, Biomass Burning from Land-Use Management, Potential Response Options to Reduce Biomass Burning, Cropland Strategies, Forest Strategies, Methods, Policy Option Example 1: Reduce Tropical Deforestation as a Source of Biomass Burning, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Amazonia: Burning and Global Climate Impacts

      Page(s): 457 - 462
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Causes, Extent, and Rates of Deforestation, Global Impacts, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Surface Cooling Due to Smoke from Biomass Burning

      Page(s): 463 - 476
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: British Columbia Fires of 1981 and 1982, Discussion, China and Siberia Fires of 1987, Yellowstone Fires of 1988, California Fires of 1987, Amazon Fires of 1987, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      A Study of Climate Change Related to Deforestation in the Xishuangbanna Area, Yunnan, China

      Page(s): 477 - 482
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Deforestation, Climate Change, Conclusion, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Biomass Burning: Historic and Prehistoric Perspectives

      Page(s): 484
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Major Wildfires at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

      Page(s): 485 - 492
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Evidence for a Global Fire, Sources of Charcoal and Soot, Ignition Problem, Effects of Fire, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Impact Winter in the Global KIT Extinctions: No Definitive Evidences

      Page(s): 493 - 503
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: KIT Boundary Climatic Cooling/Warming Background, KIT Boundary Iridium Clay Implication in Impact Winter, KIT Boundary Clay (Marine), KIT Boundary Soot Implication via Wildfire-Induced Impact Winter, KIT Boundary Paleobotanical-Climate Implications in Impact Winter, KIT Boundary Iridium and Deccan Traps Volcanism, Stable Isotope Record, KIT Shock-Metamorphosed Minerals, Conclusions, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Sky of Ash, Earth of Ash: A Brief History of Fire in the United States

      Page(s): 504 - 511
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: From Asia to America, Old World, New World, Counterreclamation, The Trying Fire, From Strategy to System, Global Fire: Means and Ends View full abstract»

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      A Five-Century Sedimentary Geochronology of Biomass Burning in Nicaragua and Central America

      Page(s): 512 - 518
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Methodologies, Results, Discussion, Conclusion View full abstract»

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      The Great Lakes Forest Fires of 8–10 October 1871

      Page(s): 519 - 522
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Contributing Factors, Nature of the Fire, Consequences, Conclusions View full abstract»

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      References

      Page(s): 523 - 563
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Page(s): 565 - 569
      Copyright Year: 1991

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications. View full abstract»