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Artificial Minds

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1997
Author(s): Franklin, S.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Computing & Processing (Hardware/Software)
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Abstract

Recent decades have produced a blossoming of research in artificial systems that exhibit important properties of mind. But what exactly is this dramatic new work and how does it change the way we think about the mind, or even about who or what has mind?Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Leisurely and informal, but always informed, his tour touches on all of the major facets of mechanisms of mind.Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind, and for the role of mind as a control structure with the essential task of choosing the next action. Selected stops include the best of the work in these different fields, with the key concepts and results explained in just enough detail to allow readers to decide for themselves why the work is significant.Major attractions include animal minds, Allan Newell's SOAR, the three Artificial Intelligence debates, John Holland's genetic algorithms, Wilson's Animat, Brooks' subsumption architecture, Jackson's pandemonium theory, Ornstein's multimind, Marvin Minsky's society of mind, Pattie Maes's behavior networks, Gerald Edelman's neural Darwinism, Drescher's schema mechanisms, Pentti Kanerva's sparse distributed memory, Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell's Copycat, and Agre and Chapman's deictic representations.A Bradford Book

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      Front Matter

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): i - xii
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Dedication, Contents, Preface View full abstract»

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      Mechanisms of Mind

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 1 - 19
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Phase Transitions and Fascinating Questions, Life Itself, Stubbs's Great Leaps, Mind Children, Itinerary, Notes View full abstract»

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      The Nature of Mind and the Mind-Body Problem

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 21 - 44
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Nature of Mind, The Mind-Body Problem, Mind as Global Dynamics, Consciousness à la Chalmers, Free Will à la Sloman, Degrees of Mind, Notes View full abstract»

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      Animal Minds

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 45 - 70
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Animal Minds?, The Mechanistic Alternative, Other Minds, Griffin's Criteria for Animal Consciousness, Brain and Consciousness, Inherited Templates, Tool Use, Animal Architecture, Communication Among Animals, Animal Language, Self-Awarenes, Rational Animals?, Animal Humor?, Notes View full abstract»

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      Symbolic AI

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 71 - 97
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Production Systems, Turing Machines, Production Systems vs. Turing Machines, Parallel Production Systems, SOAR, SOAR's Hypotheses, Notes View full abstract»

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      The First AI Debate

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 99 - 119
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Setting the Stage, Opening Statements, The Turing Test, The Pro Position, The Dreyfus Attack, Scripts à la Schank, The Chinese Room,, Quadratic Understanding, Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem, The Penrose Attack, The Horgan-Tienson Attack, Notes View full abstract»

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      Connectionism

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 121 - 140
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Connectionism—The Basic Ideas, Modeling a Neuron, Computation with Formal Neurons, An Exclusive-Or Network, Feedback and Word Recognition, Representation, Virtues of Artificial Neural Networks, Learning by Artificial Neural Networks, Notes View full abstract»

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      The Second AI Debate

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 141 - 164
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Setting the Stage, The Connectionist Agenda, The Hundred-Step Rule, Brain vs. Computer Model of Mind, Lloyd's Cautions, Fodor's Attack, Chalmers's Defense, Pollack's RAAM, Passivization of Sentences, Is Connectionism Richer?, Representations Without Rules, Notes View full abstract»

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      Evolution, Natural and Artificial

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 165 - 184
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Evolution of Mind, Life's Timetable, Single-Cell Minds, What Is Life?, Evolution as Information Processing, Us and Bats, Genetic Nuts and Bolts, Cumulative Selection, Genetic Algorithms, Notes View full abstract»

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      Artificial Life

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 185 - 207
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Artificial Life, Animat and Intelligence, Animat as a Simple Animal, Animat and Its Environment, Animat's Classifier System, Animat in Action, Trouble in Paradise, Some Conclusions, Learning and Evolution, Epilogue, Notes View full abstract»

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      Multiplicity of Mind

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 209 - 232
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Multimind, Patterns of Behavior, The Creation of Information, The Brain à la Ornstein, Structure of Multimind, The Society of Mind, Minsky's Mechanisms, Notes View full abstract»

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      What Do I Do Now?

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 233 - 277
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Pandemonium Model of Mind, Concepts via Pandemonium, A Computing Perspective on Pandemonium, An Implementation of Pandemonium, Problems, Comments, and Questions, Behavior Networks—the Design Criteria, Behavior Networks—the Mechanism, Planning in Behavior Networks, Behavior Network Features, Nouvelle AI, Subsumption Architecture, Allen, Herbert, Autonomous Agents, Classification of Agents, Hierarchy of Behaviors, Notes View full abstract»

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      What's Out There?

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 279 - 327
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Dynamical Systems, Perceptual Categories, Information, Order, and Entropy, Signals and Chaos, Neural Darwinism, Darwin III, Schema Mechanism, The Constructivist's Challenge, Notes View full abstract»

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      Remembering and Creating

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 329 - 363
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Memory, Boolean Geometry, A Sparse Distributed Random Access Memory, Cognition à la Kanerva, An Adaptive Autonomous Agent, The Darwin Machine, Copycat, A Copycat Run, Notes View full abstract»

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      Representation and the Third AI Debate

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 365 - 398
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Deictic Representations, The Enactive Paradigm, Goals, Motives and Goals, The Third AI Debate, Notes View full abstract»

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      Into the Future

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 399 - 410
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Quantum Connections, Mind Children, The Future Supercosm, Notes View full abstract»

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      An Emerging New Paradigm of Mind?

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 411 - 422
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Notes View full abstract»

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      References

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 423 - 436
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent decades have produced a blossoming of research in artificial systems that exhibit important properties of mind. But what exactly is this dramatic new work and how does it change the way we think about the mind, or even about who or what has mind?Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Leisurely and informal, but always informed, his tour touches on all of the major facets of mechanisms of mind.Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind, and for the role of mind as a control structure with the essential task of choosing the next action. Selected stops include the best of the work in these different fields, with the key concepts and results explained in just enough detail to allow readers to decide for themselves why the work is significant.Major attractions include animal minds, Allan Newell's SOAR, the three Artificial Intelligence debates, John Holland's genetic algorithms, Wilson's Animat, Brooks' subsumption architecture, Jackson's pandemonium theory, Ornstein's multimind, Marvin Minsky's society of mind, Pattie Maes's behavior networks, Gerald Edelman's neural Darwinism, Drescher's schema mechanisms, Pentti Kanerva's sparse distributed memory, Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell's Copycat, and Agre and Chapman's deictic representations.A Bradford Book View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Franklin, S.
      Artificial Minds

      Page(s): 437 - 449
      Copyright Year: 1997

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent decades have produced a blossoming of research in artificial systems that exhibit important properties of mind. But what exactly is this dramatic new work and how does it change the way we think about the mind, or even about who or what has mind?Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Leisurely and informal, but always informed, his tour touches on all of the major facets of mechanisms of mind.Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind, and for the role of mind as a control structure with the essential task of choosing the next action. Selected stops include the best of the work in these different fields, with the key concepts and results explained in just enough detail to allow readers to decide for themselves why the work is significant.Major attractions include animal minds, Allan Newell's SOAR, the three Artificial Intelligence debates, John Holland's genetic algorithms, Wilson's Animat, Brooks' subsumption architecture, Jackson's pandemonium theory, Ornstein's multimind, Marvin Minsky's society of mind, Pattie Maes's behavior networks, Gerald Edelman's neural Darwinism, Drescher's schema mechanisms, Pentti Kanerva's sparse distributed memory, Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell's Copycat, and Agre and Chapman's deictic representations.A Bradford Book View full abstract»