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Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1996
Author(s): Wilks, Y.; Slator, B.; Guthrie, L.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Engineering Profession
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Abstract

The use of computers to understand words continues to be an area of burgeoning research. Electric Words is the first general survey of and introduction to the entire range of work in lexical linguistics and corpora -- the study of such on-line resources as dictionaries and other texts -- in the broader fields of natural-language processing and artificial intelligence. The authors integrate and synthesize the goals and methods of computational lexicons in relation to AI's sister disciplines of philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. One of the underlying messages of the book is that current research should be guided by both computational and theoretical tools and not only by statistical techniques -- that matters have gone far beyond counting to encompass the difficult province of meaning itself and how it can be formally expressed.Electric Words delves first into the philosophical background of the study of meaning, specifically word meaning, then into the early work on treating dictionaries as texts, the first serious efforts at extracting information from machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), and the conversion of MRDs into usable lexical knowledge bases. The authors provide a comparative survey of worldwide work on extracting usable structures from dictionaries for computational-linguistic purposes and a discussion of how those structures differ from or interact with structures derived from standard texts (or corpora). Also covered are automatic techniques for analyzing MRDs, genus hierarchies and networks, numerical methods of language processing related to dictionaries, automatic processing of bilingual dictionaries, and consumer projects using MRDs.

  •   Click to expandTable of Contents

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      Front Matter

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): i - xi
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, ACL-MIT Press Series in Natural Language Processing, Title, Copyright, Contents, Preface, Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 1 - 10
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Machine-Readable Texts and Dictionaries View full abstract»

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      A Short History of Meaning

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 11 - 28
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Meaning as Nonsymbolic, Meaning as Nonsymbolic, Meaning as Symbolic View full abstract»

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      Symbolic Accounts of Definitional Meaning

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 29 - 44
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Truth Conditions as a Theory of Meaning, Meaning as Deductive or Inferential Relations, Meaning as Equivalent to Symbolic Structures View full abstract»

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      Primitives in Meaning Definition

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 45 - 61
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Escape Arguments, Putnam's Argument, Charniak's Argument, Toward a Clearer View of Semantic Primitives View full abstract»

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      Wordbooks as Human Artifacts: Dictionaries and Thesauri

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 63 - 80
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Standard Dictionary, The Classic Thesaurus, Bilingual Dictionaries, Style Dictionaries, Concordances, Are There Psychological Constraints on Dictionaries?, Are Word Senses Real?, Kay's Mental Lexicon vs. Concrete Dictionaries, Further Problems with Dictionaries View full abstract»

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      Early Computational Approaches: Tasks and Tools

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 81 - 95
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Computing over Whole Dictionaries: Olney and Revard at SDC, Amsler's Thesis, Michiel's Early Work on LDOCE, Lattices and Thesauri, Sparck Jones's Thesis and the Transition to Information Retrieval, Information Retrieval and Thesauri, Up to Modern Times: Wilks on Thesauri and Frames View full abstract»

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      Text Analysis and Its Relationship to Dictionaries: Dictionaries as Texts

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 97 - 119
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Dictionary as a Text: LDOCE and COBUILD, Dictionaries as Texts, Dictionaries as Knowledge Structures, Text Analysis on a Large Scale, Walker and Amsler, Pathtrieve, Pathfinder Networks View full abstract»

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      The Construction of Modern Lexicons

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 121 - 136
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Lexicons vs. Wordbooks, AI and Linguistic Principles of Lexicon (Re)construction, AI and Psychological Principles of Lexicon (Re)construction, Lexical Acquisition from Human Subjects, Lexical Acquisition from Texts, Lexical Workbenches: Carnegie Mellon's ONTOS and MCC's LUKE, Extended-Aspect Calculus, The “Neutral Lexicon”? View full abstract»

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      Automatic Techniques for Analyzing Machine-Readable Dictionaries

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 137 - 159
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Pattern Matching and Parsing, Explicit and Implicit Dictionary Information, Methodological Issues in the Analysis of Machine-Readable Dictionaries, Database Approaches to the Machine-Tractable Dictionary, IBM: Dictionary Entry Parsing, Semantic Approaches to the Machine-Tractable Dictionary, Defining Formulas and the Relational Lexicon: Illinois and Liège, Categories for Prepositions, The NMSU School, The SPIRAL Procedure, Alshawi, The Dutch School: Tagging the LDOCE “Corpus” View full abstract»

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      Genus Hierarchies and Networks

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 161 - 181
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Basic Technique, Overview of the Work, Extracting Semantic Networks from LDOCE, Finding the Genus Term, The Empty Head Heuristic, The Disambiguated Network of Noun Senses—NounSense View full abstract»

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      Numerical Methods for Language Processing

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 183 - 206
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Techniques for Aiding in the Construction of Dictionaries, Limited Domains, Disambiguation Relative to Translations into Another Language, Disambiguation Relative to a Single Language, CRL Techniques for Word Sense Disambiguation in Dictionaries, Word Sense Disambiguation in General Texts, Lexical Disambiguation Using Simulated Annealing, Simulated Annealing View full abstract»

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      Automatic Processing of Bilingual Dictionaries

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 207 - 222
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Bilingual Dictionaries, The ACQUILEX Project, Catizone, Russel, and Warwick, White, Klavans and Tzoukermann, Neff and McCord, The NMSU Computing Research Laboratory, NORM: The CRL Translator's Assistant View full abstract»

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      Consumer Projects Using Machine-Readable Dictionaries

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 223 - 238
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Automatic Creation of Lexical Entries for Machine Translation, Approaches to Achieving Full Specification, Pangloss, Use of Automated Procedures, Slator's PREMO: Knowledge-Based Parsing, IBM: Deciding Attachments View full abstract»

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      The Present

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 239 - 255
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Piggybacking a Dictionary from a Corpus and a “Seed” MRD, New Modes of Dictionary Construction, Organizational Developments, Conclusion: Evaluating Lexicons?, Is the MRD Era Over? View full abstract»

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      References

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 257 - 279
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The use of computers to understand words continues to be an area of burgeoning research. Electric Words is the first general survey of and introduction to the entire range of work in lexical linguistics and corpora -- the study of such on-line resources as dictionaries and other texts -- in the broader fields of natural-language processing and artificial intelligence. The authors integrate and synthesize the goals and methods of computational lexicons in relation to AI's sister disciplines of philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. One of the underlying messages of the book is that current research should be guided by both computational and theoretical tools and not only by statistical techniques -- that matters have gone far beyond counting to encompass the difficult province of meaning itself and how it can be formally expressed.Electric Words delves first into the philosophical background of the study of meaning, specifically word meaning, then into the early work on treating dictionaries as texts, the first serious efforts at extracting information from machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), and the conversion of MRDs into usable lexical knowledge bases. The authors provide a comparative survey of worldwide work on extracting usable structures from dictionaries for computational-linguistic purposes and a discussion of how those structures differ from or interact with structures derived from standard texts (or corpora). Also covered are automatic techniques for analyzing MRDs, genus hierarchies and networks, numerical methods of language processing related to dictionaries, automatic processing of bilingual dictionaries, and consumer projects using MRDs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Wilks, Y. ; Slator, B. ; Guthrie, L.
      Electric Words:Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings

      Page(s): 281 - 289
      Copyright Year: 1996

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      The use of computers to understand words continues to be an area of burgeoning research. Electric Words is the first general survey of and introduction to the entire range of work in lexical linguistics and corpora -- the study of such on-line resources as dictionaries and other texts -- in the broader fields of natural-language processing and artificial intelligence. The authors integrate and synthesize the goals and methods of computational lexicons in relation to AI's sister disciplines of philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. One of the underlying messages of the book is that current research should be guided by both computational and theoretical tools and not only by statistical techniques -- that matters have gone far beyond counting to encompass the difficult province of meaning itself and how it can be formally expressed.Electric Words delves first into the philosophical background of the study of meaning, specifically word meaning, then into the early work on treating dictionaries as texts, the first serious efforts at extracting information from machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), and the conversion of MRDs into usable lexical knowledge bases. The authors provide a comparative survey of worldwide work on extracting usable structures from dictionaries for computational-linguistic purposes and a discussion of how those structures differ from or interact with structures derived from standard texts (or corpora). Also covered are automatic techniques for analyzing MRDs, genus hierarchies and networks, numerical methods of language processing related to dictionaries, automatic processing of bilingual dictionaries, and consumer projects using MRDs. View full abstract»




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