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Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1994
Author(s): Houk, J.; Davis, J.; Beiser, D.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Bioengineering
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Abstract

Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young.

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      Front Matter

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): i - xii
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Computational Neuroscience, Title, Copyright, Contents, Series Foreword, Preface View full abstract»

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      Fundamentals

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 1
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»

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      Information Processing in Modular Circuits Linking Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 3 - 9
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Anatomical Plan of Information Flow, Potential For Pattern Recognition By Striatal Spiny Neurons, Corticothalamic Loops and Working Memory, Use of Registered Contexts in the Control Of Behavior, References View full abstract»

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      Context-dependent Activity in Primate Striatum Reflecting Past and Future Behavioral Events

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 11 - 27
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Responses to Past Events, Activity Preceding Future Events, Conclusions and Speculations, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      The Contribution of Cortical Neurons to the Firing Pattern of Striata! Spiny Neurons

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 29 - 50
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Is Inhibition Responsible for the Silence of Spiny Neurons?, Inhibition- and Excitation-Based Models can be Distinguished by Predictions on Spatial Patterning, How Many Cortical Synapses Does a Spiny Cell Receive?, Cells of Origin, Corticostriatal Neurons Show State Transitions Similar to Those of Striatal Neurons, Multiple Alternative Patterns of Input May Excite Single Striatal Neurons, References View full abstract»

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      Elements of the Intrinsic Organization and Information Processing in the Neostriatum

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 51 - 96
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Compartmental Organization, Morphology and Interactions of Dopaminergic Afferents, Postsynaptic Interactions Involving Dopamine and Other Afferents, Striatal Interactions Dependent on the Activation of Presynaptic Receptors, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Editors' Commentary on Part I

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 97 - 100
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Linking the Model to Behavior, Spiny Neuron Inputs, Sharp Thresholds and Competitive Interactions, Dopaminergic Innervation View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Motor Functions and Working Memories

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 101
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»

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      Adaptive Neural Networks in the Basal Ganglia

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 103 - 116
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Templates for Modifiable Programming, Distributed Basal Ganglia Throughputs, Privileged Access of Basal Ganglia to Inputs from Limbic System, Neuroplasticity in Basal Ganglia Circuits During Sensorimotor Conditioning, Timing as a Critical Control Variable in Basal Ganglia Networks, Effects of Basal Ganglia Processing on Action Plans, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Macro-organization of the Circuits Connecting the Basal Ganglia with the Cortical Motor Areas

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 117 - 130
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Organization of Basal Ganglia Output to the Cerebral Cortex, Summary and Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Toward a Circuit Model of Working Memory and the Guidance of Voluntary Motor Action

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 131 - 148
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Physiological Features of Prefrontal Neurons Revealed by Delayed-Response Tasks, Inhibition in Memory Circuits, Sensory Coding in Prefrontal Cortex: Role of Local and Long-Tract Corticocortical Connections, Directional Signaling.: Role of the Corticostriatonigral/Pallidal Projections, Pre- and Postsaccadic Neuronal Activity: Possible Role of Thalamic Innervation, Summary: A Circuit Model for Working Memory, References View full abstract»

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      Modeling the Roles of Basal Ganglia in Timing and Sequencing Saccadic Eye Movements

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 149 - 162
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Basal Ganglia and the Control of Working Memory, Corticostriatal Plasticity, Notes, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      A State-Space Striatal Model

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 163 - 177
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Motor Control, Physiological Constraints, Refinements and Extensions to the Picture, Summary, Notes, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Editors' Commentary on Part II

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 179 - 183
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Convergence Patterns, Trans-Striatal Motor Loops, Memory-Guided Motor Performance, An Alternate Striatal Model View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Reward Mechanisms

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 185
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»

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      Cellular Models of Reinforcement

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 187 - 214
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Dopaminergic Mechanisms in Reinforcement Learning, Dopamine-Mediated Heterosynaptic Plasticity in the Striatum, Integrative Aspects of Reinforcement Learning, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Adaptive Critics and the Basal Ganglia

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 215 - 232
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Reinforcement Learning, The Actor-Critic Architecture, Imminence Weighting, An Input's Value, Learning to Predict, The Adaptive Critic Learning Rule, Effective Reinforcement, The Actor Learning Rule, Neural Implementation, The Case of Terminal Primary Reinforcement, Conclusion, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Reward-related Signals Carried by Dopamine Neurons

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 233 - 248
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Selective Responses to a Limited Range of Stimuli, Nature of Stimuli Effective for Activating Dopamine Neurons, Impact of the Dopamine Message on Postsynaptic Processing, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      A Model of How the Basal Ganglia Generate and Use Neural Signals That Predict Reinforcement

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 249 - 270
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Dopamine Neurons, Organization of Strtosomal Modules, Mechanism of Responsiveness to Predictors of Reinforcement, Correspondence with the Theory of Adaptive Critics, Learning to Predict Primary Reinforcement, Learning Earlier Predictors of Reinforcement, Relation to the Actor-Critic Architecture, More Realistic Assumptions, Summary, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Editors' Commentary on Part III

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 271 - 274
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Critics, Actors, and Rewarding Behavior, Developing Predictions of Delayed Reinforcement View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Cognitive and Memory Operations

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 275
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Contribution of the Basal Ganglia to Skill Learning and Working Memory in Humans

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 277 - 294
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Skill Learning in Patients with Diseases of the Basal Ganglia, Role of the Basal Ganglia in Skill Learning, Working Memory in Patients with Diseases of the Basal Ganglia, Role of the Basal Ganglia in Working Memory, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Memory Limits in Sensorimotor Tasks

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 295 - 313
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Deictic Strategies, Evidence for Deictic Strategies, Implementing Roles, Conclusions, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Neostriatal Circuitry as a Scalar Memory: Modeling and Ensemble Neuron Recording

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 315 - 336
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Function of Local Neostriatal Circuits—Hypotheses, Simulations of Neostriatal Circuit Models, Neostriatal Switches as a Scalar Memory, Ensemble Neuron Recording in Neostriatum, Summary, Acknowledgments, References View full abstract»

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      Sensorimotor Selection and the Basal Ganglia: A Neural Network Model

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 337 - 367
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Anatomical Substrates of Visuospatial Attention, Spatial Orienting of Attention and the Posterior Network, Do the Basal Ganglia Control Spatial Orienting?, Attentional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease, A Neural Network Model, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Editors' Commentary on Part IV

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 369 - 374
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Similarity of Cognitive and Motor Operations, Allocating Attention, Working Memory Strategies, Settling into Working Memories, Concluding Remarks View full abstract»

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      Contributors

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 375 - 377
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Houk, J. ; Davis, J. ; Beiser, D.
      Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia

      Page(s): 379 - 382
      Copyright Year: 1994

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion of knowledge about the anatomical organization of the part of the brain known as the basal ganglia, the signal processing that occurs in these structures, and the many relations both to molecular mechanisms and to cognitive functions. This book brings together the biology and computational features of the basal ganglia and their related cortical areas along with select examples of how this knowledge can be integrated into neural network models.Organized in four parts - fundamentals, motor functions and working memories, reward mechanisms, and cognitive and memory operations - the chapters present a unique admixture of theory, cognitive psychology, anatomy, and both cellular- and systems- level physiology written by experts in each of these areas. The editors have provided commentaries as a helpful guide to each part.Many new discoveries about the biology of the basal ganglia are summarized, and their impact on the computational role of the forebrain in the planning and control of complex motor behaviors discussed. The various findings point toward an unexpected role for the basal ganglia in the contextual analysis of the environment and in the adaptive use of this information for the planning and execution of intelligent behaviors. Parallels are explored between these findings and new connectionist approaches to difficult control problems in robotics and engineering.Contributors : James L. Adams. P. Apicella. Michael Arbib. Dana H. Ballard. Andrew G. Barto. J. Brian Burns. Christopher I. Connolly. Peter F. Dominey. Richard P. Dum. John Gabrieli. M. Garcia-Munoz. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. Ann M. Graybiel. P. M. Groves. Mary M. Hayhoe. J. R. Hollerman. George Houghton. James C. Houk. Stephen Jackson. Minoru Kimura. A. B. Kiri llov. Rolf Kotter. J. C. Linder, T. Ljungberg. M. S. Manley. M. E. Martone. J. Mirenowicz. C. D. Myre. Jeff Pelz. Nathalie Picard. R. Romo. S. F. Sawyer. E Scarnati. Wolfram Schultz. Peter L. Strick. Charles J. Wilson. Jeff Wickens. Donald J. Woodward. S. J. Young. View full abstract»