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Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2009
Author(s): Rasskin-Gutman, D.; Klosky, D.
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Robotics & Control Systems
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Abstract

When we play the ancient and noble game of chess, we grapple with ideas about honesty, deceitfulness, bravery, fear, aggression, beauty, and creativity, which echo (or allow us to depart from) the attitudes we take in our daily lives. Chess is an activity in which we deploy almost all our available cognitive resources; therefore, it makes an ideal laboratory for investigation into the workings of the mind. Indeed, research into artificial intelligence (AI) has used chess as a model for intelligent behavior since the 1950s. In Chess Metaphors, Diego Rasskin-Gutman explores fundamental questions about memory, thought, emotion, consciousness, and other cognitive processes through the game of chess, using the moves of thirty-two pieces over sixty-four squares to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. Rasskin-Gutman focuses on the cognitive task of problem solving, exploring it from the perspectives of both biology and AI. Examining AI researchers' efforts to program a computer that could beat a flesh-and-blood grandmaster (and win a world chess championship), he finds that the results fall short when compared to the truly creative nature of the human mind.

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      Front Matter

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): i - xx
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Dedication, Contents, Foreword, Preface View full abstract»

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      The Human Brain: Metaphor Maker

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 1 - 27
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: General Introduction to Brain Structure and function, Form and Function: Brain and Mind, Some Structural Elements: Brain Cells, Butterfl ies of the Soul, Some Functional Elements: Electrochemical Current and Communication among Neurons, Cellular Mechanisms for Memory Storage, Basic Organization of the Brain's Functional Regions, Techniques for Analyzing Brain Activity, Acquisition of Functional Capacities in the Brain, Some Notes on the Evolution of the Brain, Summary View full abstract»

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      The Human Mind: Metaphor of the World

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 29 - 60
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Mind-Brain Duality, Emergent Complexity, Three Levels of Abstraction and Two Operational Spaces, Proprioception, Perception and Knowledge, Memory and Learning, The Magical Number Seven (Plus or Minus Two), Attention, Thought, Decision Making and Problem Solving, Language, Emotions, Consciousness and Qualia, Intelligence, Born or Made? Genetics or Learning, Summary View full abstract»

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      Artificial Intelligence: Silicon Metaphors

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 61 - 84
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Silicon Metaphor: Computer Information Processing, A Protohistory of Artificial Intelligence: A Web of Desires and Ideas, A Protohistory of Artificial Intelligence: Scientific Elements, The Modern Development of Artificial Intelligence, A Protohistory of Automatic Chess, Some Relevant Concepts: Recursiveness, Algorithms, and Heuristics, Expert Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Artificial Neural Networks, Elephants Don't Play Chess, Agents, Embodiment, and the New AI, Summary View full abstract»

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      The Complete Metaphor: Chess and Problem Solving

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 85 - 124
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Why Chess?, A Brief History of Chess, Who Plays Chess?, Chess: A Game? A Human Problem, Chess: An Art? An Aesthetic Problem, Chess: A Science? A Heuristic Problem, Move Choice, Chess and Cognitive Processes: First Contributions, Chess and Cognitive Processes: The Contributions of Adriaan de Groot, De Groot's Conclusions, Modern Proposals: Perception and Search, Chess and Personality: Psychological and Psychoanalytical Images of the Player, Summary View full abstract»

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      Chess Metaphors: Searches and Heuristics

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 125 - 162
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: First Programs, The First Proposal: Claude Shannon, Alan Turing in Action: Turochamp, Herbert Simon, Brute Force or Heuristic?, The Structure of a Chess Program, Databases, Some Results of an Academic Type, The Experience with Neural Networks, Modern Human versus Machine Competitions, The Internet Experience, Summary View full abstract»

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      Epilogue

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 163 - 167
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Creative Species, Player of Games, Machine versus Mind, Mind versus Machine, How Does a Grand Master Think?, Emergent Processes View full abstract»

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      Appendixes

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 169
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      When we play the ancient and noble game of chess, we grapple with ideas about honesty, deceitfulness, bravery, fear, aggression, beauty, and creativity, which echo (or allow us to depart from) the attitudes we take in our daily lives. Chess is an activity in which we deploy almost all our available cognitive resources; therefore, it makes an ideal laboratory for investigation into the workings of the mind. Indeed, research into artificial intelligence (AI) has used chess as a model for intelligent behavior since the 1950s. In Chess Metaphors, Diego Rasskin-Gutman explores fundamental questions about memory, thought, emotion, consciousness, and other cognitive processes through the game of chess, using the moves of thirty-two pieces over sixty-four squares to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. Rasskin-Gutman focuses on the cognitive task of problem solving, exploring it from the perspectives of both biology and AI. Examining AI researchers' efforts to program a computer that could beat a flesh-and-blood grandmaster (and win a world chess championship), he finds that the results fall short when compared to the truly creative nature of the human mind. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      The Rudiments of Chess

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 171 - 179
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Notation, Terms View full abstract»

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      Chess Programs and Other Tools

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 181 - 182
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      When we play the ancient and noble game of chess, we grapple with ideas about honesty, deceitfulness, bravery, fear, aggression, beauty, and creativity, which echo (or allow us to depart from) the attitudes we take in our daily lives. Chess is an activity in which we deploy almost all our available cognitive resources; therefore, it makes an ideal laboratory for investigation into the workings of the mind. Indeed, research into artificial intelligence (AI) has used chess as a model for intelligent behavior since the 1950s. In Chess Metaphors, Diego Rasskin-Gutman explores fundamental questions about memory, thought, emotion, consciousness, and other cognitive processes through the game of chess, using the moves of thirty-two pieces over sixty-four squares to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. Rasskin-Gutman focuses on the cognitive task of problem solving, exploring it from the perspectives of both biology and AI. Examining AI researchers' efforts to program a computer that could beat a flesh-and-blood grandmaster (and win a world chess championship), he finds that the results fall short when compared to the truly creative nature of the human mind. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Internet Sites for Playing Chess

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 183 - 184
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      When we play the ancient and noble game of chess, we grapple with ideas about honesty, deceitfulness, bravery, fear, aggression, beauty, and creativity, which echo (or allow us to depart from) the attitudes we take in our daily lives. Chess is an activity in which we deploy almost all our available cognitive resources; therefore, it makes an ideal laboratory for investigation into the workings of the mind. Indeed, research into artificial intelligence (AI) has used chess as a model for intelligent behavior since the 1950s. In Chess Metaphors, Diego Rasskin-Gutman explores fundamental questions about memory, thought, emotion, consciousness, and other cognitive processes through the game of chess, using the moves of thirty-two pieces over sixty-four squares to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. Rasskin-Gutman focuses on the cognitive task of problem solving, exploring it from the perspectives of both biology and AI. Examining AI researchers' efforts to program a computer that could beat a flesh-and-blood grandmaster (and win a world chess championship), he finds that the results fall short when compared to the truly creative nature of the human mind. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Bibliography

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 185 - 198
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5 View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Rasskin-Gutman, D. ; Klosky, D.
      Chess Metaphors:Artificial Intelligence and the Human Mind

      Page(s): 199 - 205
      Copyright Year: 2009

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      When we play the ancient and noble game of chess, we grapple with ideas about honesty, deceitfulness, bravery, fear, aggression, beauty, and creativity, which echo (or allow us to depart from) the attitudes we take in our daily lives. Chess is an activity in which we deploy almost all our available cognitive resources; therefore, it makes an ideal laboratory for investigation into the workings of the mind. Indeed, research into artificial intelligence (AI) has used chess as a model for intelligent behavior since the 1950s. In Chess Metaphors, Diego Rasskin-Gutman explores fundamental questions about memory, thought, emotion, consciousness, and other cognitive processes through the game of chess, using the moves of thirty-two pieces over sixty-four squares to map the structural and functional organization of the brain. Rasskin-Gutman focuses on the cognitive task of problem solving, exploring it from the perspectives of both biology and AI. Examining AI researchers' efforts to program a computer that could beat a flesh-and-blood grandmaster (and win a world chess championship), he finds that the results fall short when compared to the truly creative nature of the human mind. View full abstract»




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